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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 22I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 22’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 309.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
212223

Ok ‘And’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[1] Ok til móts: hitt var meir F

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til ‘to’

til (prep.): to

[1] Ok til móts: hitt var meir F

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móts ‘the meeting’

1. mót (noun n.; °; -): meeting

[1] Ok til móts: hitt var meir F

kennings

móts randa
‘the meeting of shields ’
   = BATTLE

the meeting of shields → BATTLE
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á ‘aboard’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[1] á: at F, 53, 54, Bb, FskBˣ

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mǫra ‘’

Close

mjúta ‘’

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mǫta ‘’

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Meita ‘of Meiti’

Meiti (noun m.): Meiti

[1] Meita: mǫra F, ‘mǫta’ J1ˣ, FskAˣ, ‘mí(u)ta’(?) 325VIII 1, ‘mæra’ Bb

kennings

mjúkhurðum Meita
‘the pliant doors of Meiti ’
   = SHIPS

the pliant doors of Meiti → SHIPS

notes

[1-2] mjúkhurðum Meita ‘the pliant doors of Meiti [SHIPS]’: Hurð ‘door, hurdle’ is unusual as the base-word of a ship-kenning but the explanation might be that ships, like doors, are constructed of boards (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Meissner 222).

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mjúk ‘the pliant’

mjúkr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): gentle, humble < mjúkhurð (noun f.)

[2] mjúk‑: mjó‑ F, ‘mjok‑’ 53, 54, Bb

kennings

mjúkhurðum Meita
‘the pliant doors of Meiti ’
   = SHIPS

the pliant doors of Meiti → SHIPS

notes

[1-2] mjúkhurðum Meita ‘the pliant doors of Meiti [SHIPS]’: Hurð ‘door, hurdle’ is unusual as the base-word of a ship-kenning but the explanation might be that ships, like doors, are constructed of boards (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Meissner 222).

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hurðum ‘doors’

hurð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): door < mjúkhurð (noun f.)hurð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): door < mjóhurð (noun f.)hurð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): door < mjǫkhurð (noun f.)

[2] ‑hurðum: ‘‑(h)erdu’(?) 53, ‑herðum 54, Bb

kennings

mjúkhurðum Meita
‘the pliant doors of Meiti ’
   = SHIPS

the pliant doors of Meiti → SHIPS

notes

[1-2] mjúkhurðum Meita ‘the pliant doors of Meiti [SHIPS]’: Hurð ‘door, hurdle’ is unusual as the base-word of a ship-kenning but the explanation might be that ships, like doors, are constructed of boards (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Meissner 222).

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sǫr ‘’

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svǫr ‘of the bird’

svǫrr (noun m.): [bird] < svǫrgœlir (noun m.)

[3] svǫr‑: sǫr‑ F, FskAˣ, spor‑ FskBˣ

kennings

Sǫrva svǫrgœli.
‘the gladdener of the bird of Sǫrvi. ’
   = WARRIOR

the bird of Sǫrvi. → RAVEN/EAGLE
the gladdener of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
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svǫr ‘of the bird’

svǫrr (noun m.): [bird] < svǫrgœlir (noun m.)

[3] svǫr‑: sǫr‑ F, FskAˣ, spor‑ FskBˣ

kennings

Sǫrva svǫrgœli.
‘the gladdener of the bird of Sǫrvi. ’
   = WARRIOR

the bird of Sǫrvi. → RAVEN/EAGLE
the gladdener of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
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gjæli ‘’

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geili ‘’

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géli ‘’

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goli ‘’

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gǫli ‘’

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gœli ‘the gladdener’

gœlir (noun m.): gladdener < svǫrgœlir (noun m.)gœlir (noun m.): gladdenergœlir (noun m.): gladdener < sporgœlir (noun m.)

[3] ‑gœli: so F, ‘‑gǫli’ Kˣ, J2ˣ, ‘‑geli’ J1ˣ, ‘‑goli’ 325VIII 1, FskAˣ, ‘‑giæli’ 61, ‘‑gieli’ 53, 54, ‘‑geili’ Bb, ‑gœlis FskBˣ

kennings

Sǫrva svǫrgœli.
‘the gladdener of the bird of Sǫrvi. ’
   = WARRIOR

the bird of Sǫrvi. → RAVEN/EAGLE
the gladdener of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
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sarpa ‘’

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ǫrgva ‘’

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svarfa ‘’

svarfa (verb)

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Sǫrva ‘of Sǫrvi’

Sǫrvi (noun m.): Sǫrvi

[3] Sǫrva: svarfa J1ˣ, svarra Bb, ‘aurgua’ FskBˣ, ‘sarpa’ FskAˣ

kennings

Sǫrva svǫrgœli.
‘the gladdener of the bird of Sǫrvi. ’
   = WARRIOR

the bird of Sǫrvi. → RAVEN/EAGLE
the gladdener of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

Sǫrva ‘of Sǫrvi’

Sǫrvi (noun m.): Sǫrvi

[3] Sǫrva: svarfa J1ˣ, svarra Bb, ‘aurgua’ FskBˣ, ‘sarpa’ FskAˣ

kennings

Sǫrva svǫrgœli.
‘the gladdener of the bird of Sǫrvi. ’
   = WARRIOR

the bird of Sǫrvi. → RAVEN/EAGLE
the gladdener of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

sjau ‘seven’

sjau (num. cardinal): seven

[4] sjau: sjá 54, Bb

notes

[4] sjau landrekar ‘seven commanders’: Snorri Sturluson explains the word landreki in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 101) as one who leads a host into the realm of another king or drives a host out of his own realm. However, this implied derivation from reka ‘drive’ is probably wrong (Faulkes, SnE 1998, I, 220), as is the derivation from *landríkr ‘land-ruler’ in LP: landreki. The word more likely derives from rekja ‘to straighten out’ (ÍO: 2 ‑reki; AEW: reki 2) and means ‘commander’, cf. for instance HHund I 32/3. These leaders have been identified either as seven commanders allied with Hákon or as commanders of the two opposing hosts. Their number, seven, is most likely connected to the seven fylki under Hákon’s rule (st. 13), each coming from a different fylki.

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land ‘’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land < landreki (noun m.): land-ruler

[4] land‑: lǫnd‑ FskBˣ

notes

[4] sjau landrekar ‘seven commanders’: Snorri Sturluson explains the word landreki in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 101) as one who leads a host into the realm of another king or drives a host out of his own realm. However, this implied derivation from reka ‘drive’ is probably wrong (Faulkes, SnE 1998, I, 220), as is the derivation from *landríkr ‘land-ruler’ in LP: landreki. The word more likely derives from rekja ‘to straighten out’ (ÍO: 2 ‑reki; AEW: reki 2) and means ‘commander’, cf. for instance HHund I 32/3. These leaders have been identified either as seven commanders allied with Hákon or as commanders of the two opposing hosts. Their number, seven, is most likely connected to the seven fylki under Hákon’s rule (st. 13), each coming from a different fylki.

Close

rekar ‘commanders’

reki (noun m.; °-a; -ar): ruler < landreki (noun m.): land-rulerreki (noun m.; °-a; -ar): ruler

[4] ‑rekar: ‑reki J1ˣ, ‑reka Bb

notes

[4] sjau landrekar ‘seven commanders’: Snorri Sturluson explains the word landreki in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 101) as one who leads a host into the realm of another king or drives a host out of his own realm. However, this implied derivation from reka ‘drive’ is probably wrong (Faulkes, SnE 1998, I, 220), as is the derivation from *landríkr ‘land-ruler’ in LP: landreki. The word more likely derives from rekja ‘to straighten out’ (ÍO: 2 ‑reki; AEW: reki 2) and means ‘commander’, cf. for instance HHund I 32/3. These leaders have been identified either as seven commanders allied with Hákon or as commanders of the two opposing hosts. Their number, seven, is most likely connected to the seven fylki under Hákon’s rule (st. 13), each coming from a different fylki.

Close

randa ‘of shields’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

[4] randa: landa Bb, hǫndum FskBˣ, handan FskAˣ

kennings

móts randa
‘the meeting of shields ’
   = BATTLE

the meeting of shields → BATTLE
Close

Glumði ‘resounded’

glymja (verb): resound

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allr ‘All’

allr (adj.): all

[5] allr: allt F

Close

þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

[5] þás (‘þa er’): þar er 54, Bb

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Ullar ‘the Ullar’

Ullr (noun m.): Ullr

kennings

Ullar veggjar Heðins
‘the Ullar of the wall of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIORS

the wall of Heðinn → SHIELD
the Ullar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Ullar veggjar Heðins ‘the Ullar <gods> of the wall of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIORS]’: Whether this warrior-kenning refers only to Hákon and his warriors or to the two opposing hosts cannot be determined for sure. The image ‘all of Norway resounded’ makes the latter more likely.

Close

egg ‘in the blade’

1. egg (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)): edge, blade < eggþing (noun n.): [edge-assemblies]1. egg (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)): edge, blade < eggþing (noun n.): [edge-assemblies]

kennings

eggþings;
‘in the blade-assembly; ’
   = BATTLE

in the blade-assembly; → BATTLE

notes

[6] eggþings ‘in the blade-assembly [BATTLE]’: The function of this gen. sg. kenning in the helmingr is unclear, but it is tentatively taken here with fóru saman ‘crashed together, went together’ as a rare instance of an adverbial gen. of place (Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 147-8; cf. also NS §141). It could alternatively be taken with nesjum (l. 7) hence ‘headlands of battle’.

Close

þings ‘assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < eggþing (noun n.): [edge-assemblies]

[6] ‑þings: ‑þing 325VIII 1

kennings

eggþings;
‘in the blade-assembly; ’
   = BATTLE

in the blade-assembly; → BATTLE

notes

[6] eggþings ‘in the blade-assembly [BATTLE]’: The function of this gen. sg. kenning in the helmingr is unclear, but it is tentatively taken here with fóru saman ‘crashed together, went together’ as a rare instance of an adverbial gen. of place (Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 147-8; cf. also NS §141). It could alternatively be taken with nesjum (l. 7) hence ‘headlands of battle’.

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

kennings

Ullar veggjar Heðins
‘the Ullar of the wall of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIORS

the wall of Heðinn → SHIELD
the Ullar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Ullar veggjar Heðins ‘the Ullar <gods> of the wall of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIORS]’: Whether this warrior-kenning refers only to Hákon and his warriors or to the two opposing hosts cannot be determined for sure. The image ‘all of Norway resounded’ makes the latter more likely.

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

kennings

Ullar veggjar Heðins
‘the Ullar of the wall of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIORS

the wall of Heðinn → SHIELD
the Ullar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Ullar veggjar Heðins ‘the Ullar <gods> of the wall of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIORS]’: Whether this warrior-kenning refers only to Hákon and his warriors or to the two opposing hosts cannot be determined for sure. The image ‘all of Norway resounded’ makes the latter more likely.

Close

veggjar ‘of the wall’

1. veggr (noun m.; °-jar/-s(Páll²A 257³³), dat. -/-i(kun defin.); -ir): wall

kennings

Ullar veggjar Heðins
‘the Ullar of the wall of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIORS

the wall of Heðinn → SHIELD
the Ullar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Ullar veggjar Heðins ‘the Ullar <gods> of the wall of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIORS]’: Whether this warrior-kenning refers only to Hákon and his warriors or to the two opposing hosts cannot be determined for sure. The image ‘all of Norway resounded’ makes the latter more likely.

Close

veggjar ‘of the wall’

1. veggr (noun m.; °-jar/-s(Páll²A 257³³), dat. -/-i(kun defin.); -ir): wall

kennings

Ullar veggjar Heðins
‘the Ullar of the wall of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIORS

the wall of Heðinn → SHIELD
the Ullar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Ullar veggjar Heðins ‘the Ullar <gods> of the wall of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIORS]’: Whether this warrior-kenning refers only to Hákon and his warriors or to the two opposing hosts cannot be determined for sure. The image ‘all of Norway resounded’ makes the latter more likely.

Close

gnótt ‘an abundance’

gnótt (noun f.): abundance

[7] gnótt: gnógt 54

Close

flaut ‘was floating’

fljóta (verb): flow, float

[7] flaut: flaust Bb

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nass ‘’

Close

nás ‘of corpses’

nár (noun m.; °-s; -ir): corpse

[7] nás: ‘nass’ 325VIII 1, ‘vas’ 53, vás 54

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Nóregr ‘of Norway’

Noregr (noun m.): Norway

[8] Nóregr: ‘nor̄’ 325VIII 1, nóregs 53, 54, Bb

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saman ‘together’

saman (adv.): together

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See Context to st. 21.

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