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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 69VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 69’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 63-4.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
686970

Óláfs ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

Close

hǫfum ‘We [I] have’

hafa (verb): have

Close

jǫfra ‘of the kings’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

[1] jǫfra: so Bb, jǫfri Flat

notes

[2, 1] kyni jǫfra ‘the family of the kings’: Bb’s jǫfra must be the preferred reading here, as Flat’s jǫfri (dat. sg.) leaves kyni (l. 2) syntactically isolated. Presumably Einarr uses the gen. pl. jǫfra to refer to the three kings Eysteinn, Sigurðr and Ingi, who were in his audience; the phrase could also flatter them by suggesting that they, as sons of Haraldr gilli, were descendants of S. Óláfr.

Close

orð ‘of eloquent’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word < orðhagr (adj.)

notes

[2] orðhags (m. gen. sg.) ‘eloquent’: The epithet is puzzling in this context, but it may refer to Óláfr’s power as an intercessor.

Close

hags ‘’

2. hagr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): skilful < orðhagr (adj.)

notes

[2] orðhags (m. gen. sg.) ‘eloquent’: The epithet is puzzling in this context, but it may refer to Óláfr’s power as an intercessor.

Close

kyni ‘the family’

1. kyn (noun n.; °-s; -): kin

notes

[2, 1] kyni jǫfra ‘the family of the kings’: Bb’s jǫfra must be the preferred reading here, as Flat’s jǫfri (dat. sg.) leaves kyni (l. 2) syntactically isolated. Presumably Einarr uses the gen. pl. jǫfra to refer to the three kings Eysteinn, Sigurðr and Ingi, who were in his audience; the phrase could also flatter them by suggesting that they, as sons of Haraldr gilli, were descendants of S. Óláfr.

Close

fylgir ‘supports’

2. fylgja (verb): follow, accompany

[3] fylgir: fylgði Bb

notes

[3] fylgir ‘supports’: Bb’s pret. fylgði ‘supported’ is preferred by Skj B and Skald, and could be taken to refer to Einarr’s nearly completed performance of his encomium.

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happs ‘the blessed’

happ (noun n.; °-s; *-): fortune, luck < happsdáð (noun f.)

[4] happsdáðir: happsdáða Bb

notes

[4] happsdáðir ‘blessed deeds’: Cf. happmætu ‘rich in blessing’, st. 19/7.

Close

dáðir ‘deeds’

dáð (noun f.; °; -ir): feat, deed < happsdáð (noun f.)

[4] happsdáðir: happsdáða Bb

notes

[4] happsdáðir ‘blessed deeds’: Cf. happmætu ‘rich in blessing’, st. 19/7.

Close

fôm ‘We [I] shall receive’

2. fá (verb; °fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn): get, receive

[5] fôm: ‘fæ ek’ Bb

Close

ef ‘if’

3. ef (conj.): if

[5] ef: so Bb, af Flat

Close

hræ ‘of the corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

hræ ‘of the corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

hræ ‘of the corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

hræ ‘of the corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

hræ ‘of the corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

hræ ‘of the corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

síks ‘fish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

síks ‘fish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

síks ‘fish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

síks ‘fish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

síks ‘fish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

síks ‘fish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < hræsíkr (noun m.)

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn. — [7] hræsíks ‘of the corpse-fish [SWORD]’: The síkr is a kind of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

Close

þrimu ‘of the storm’

þrima (noun f.): battle, din

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn.

Close

þrimu ‘of the storm’

þrima (noun f.): battle, din

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn.

Close

líkar ‘it pleases’

4. líka (verb): please

Close

hjalp ‘help’

1. hjalpa (verb): help

[7] hjalp: lét Bb

Close

gœðum ‘the increasers’

gœðir (noun m.): strengthener, increaser

[7] gœðum: ‘gæðir’ Bb

kennings

gœðum þrimu hræsíks.
‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish.’
   = WARRIORS

the corpse-fish. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the increasers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6, 7] gœðum þrimu hræsíks ‘the increasers of the storm of the corpse-fish [SWORD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This warrior-kenning may refer to the three kings in Einarr’s audience. Alternatively, if emendation of the base-word to gœði (dat. sg.) is preferred (so Skj B, following Cederschiöld), the kenning may refer to Einarr himself or to his patron King Eysteinn.

Close

blessan ‘blessing’

blezun (noun f.; °blezanar/blezunar; blezanir): [blessing]

[8] blessan: ‘blezon’ Flat, ‘blezun’ Bb

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The order of this st. and the following one is reversed in Bb. — [5-8]: The second helmingr is difficult to understand. Both Skj B and Skald adopt Bb’s hreinum (l. 5), ef (l. 5) and ‘let’ (l. 7), which Finnur Jónsson interprets as létt ‘easily’ and Kock emends to lát ‘sound’. Chase 2005, 119 adopts hjǫlp ‘help’, based on Flat’s ‘hialp’. Line 7 is problematic for metrical reasons, as eds have long recognised, but the cause has not previously been adequately addressed, viz. that the word in position 4 cannot be either a noun or an adv., but must be a verb. Both Flat’s and Bb’s readings point in that direction. The present interpretation takes Flat’s text in all instances except for ef (l. 5) instead of af.

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