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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 53VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 53’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 50.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
525354

Myndi ‘would have’

munu (verb): will, must

Close

hryggs ‘of the sorrowful’

2. hryggr (adj.; °-van/-jan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri; superl. -astr): sorrowful, sad

kennings

hryggs lagar eldbrota
‘sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea’
   = GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

the flame of the sea → GOLD
the sorrowful breaker of the GOLD → GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

notes

[3-4] lið hryggs lagar eldbrota dugði ‘the army of the sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea did well’: The reference is probably to the Byzantine army and its leader. The structure of this intercalary cl. follows Skald and NN §944 rather than Skj B, which fragments l. 3 syntactically. However, both Skj B and Skald adopt Bb’s dugðit ‘did not do well’, with suffixed negative, rather than the positive 3rd pers. sg. pret. of Flat. Both readings are possible, and it could be argued that Bb’s is better on grounds of sense, viz. the Byzantine army did not do well but was saved by the brave Varangians.

Close

dugði ‘did well’

duga (verb; °dugir; dugði; dugat): help, befit

[3] dugði: dugðit Bb

notes

[3-4] lið hryggs lagar eldbrota dugði ‘the army of the sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea did well’: The reference is probably to the Byzantine army and its leader. The structure of this intercalary cl. follows Skald and NN §944 rather than Skj B, which fragments l. 3 syntactically. However, both Skj B and Skald adopt Bb’s dugðit ‘did not do well’, with suffixed negative, rather than the positive 3rd pers. sg. pret. of Flat. Both readings are possible, and it could be argued that Bb’s is better on grounds of sense, viz. the Byzantine army did not do well but was saved by the brave Varangians.

Close

lið ‘the army’

lið (noun n.; °-s; -): retinue, troop

notes

[3-4] lið hryggs lagar eldbrota dugði ‘the army of the sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea did well’: The reference is probably to the Byzantine army and its leader. The structure of this intercalary cl. follows Skald and NN §944 rather than Skj B, which fragments l. 3 syntactically. However, both Skj B and Skald adopt Bb’s dugðit ‘did not do well’, with suffixed negative, rather than the positive 3rd pers. sg. pret. of Flat. Both readings are possible, and it could be argued that Bb’s is better on grounds of sense, viz. the Byzantine army did not do well but was saved by the brave Varangians.

Close

liggja ‘lain’

liggja (verb): lie

Close

lagar ‘of the sea’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea

kennings

hryggs lagar eldbrota
‘sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea’
   = GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

the flame of the sea → GOLD
the sorrowful breaker of the GOLD → GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

notes

[3-4] lið hryggs lagar eldbrota dugði ‘the army of the sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea did well’: The reference is probably to the Byzantine army and its leader. The structure of this intercalary cl. follows Skald and NN §944 rather than Skj B, which fragments l. 3 syntactically. However, both Skj B and Skald adopt Bb’s dugðit ‘did not do well’, with suffixed negative, rather than the positive 3rd pers. sg. pret. of Flat. Both readings are possible, and it could be argued that Bb’s is better on grounds of sense, viz. the Byzantine army did not do well but was saved by the brave Varangians.

Close

lagar ‘of the sea’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea

kennings

hryggs lagar eldbrota
‘sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea’
   = GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

the flame of the sea → GOLD
the sorrowful breaker of the GOLD → GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

notes

[3-4] lið hryggs lagar eldbrota dugði ‘the army of the sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea did well’: The reference is probably to the Byzantine army and its leader. The structure of this intercalary cl. follows Skald and NN §944 rather than Skj B, which fragments l. 3 syntactically. However, both Skj B and Skald adopt Bb’s dugðit ‘did not do well’, with suffixed negative, rather than the positive 3rd pers. sg. pret. of Flat. Both readings are possible, and it could be argued that Bb’s is better on grounds of sense, viz. the Byzantine army did not do well but was saved by the brave Varangians.

Close

eld ‘of the flame’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire < eldbroti (noun m.)

kennings

hryggs lagar eldbrota
‘sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea’
   = GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

the flame of the sea → GOLD
the sorrowful breaker of the GOLD → GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

notes

[3-4] lið hryggs lagar eldbrota dugði ‘the army of the sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea did well’: The reference is probably to the Byzantine army and its leader. The structure of this intercalary cl. follows Skald and NN §944 rather than Skj B, which fragments l. 3 syntactically. However, both Skj B and Skald adopt Bb’s dugðit ‘did not do well’, with suffixed negative, rather than the positive 3rd pers. sg. pret. of Flat. Both readings are possible, and it could be argued that Bb’s is better on grounds of sense, viz. the Byzantine army did not do well but was saved by the brave Varangians.

Close

eld ‘of the flame’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire < eldbroti (noun m.)

kennings

hryggs lagar eldbrota
‘sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea’
   = GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

the flame of the sea → GOLD
the sorrowful breaker of the GOLD → GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

notes

[3-4] lið hryggs lagar eldbrota dugði ‘the army of the sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea did well’: The reference is probably to the Byzantine army and its leader. The structure of this intercalary cl. follows Skald and NN §944 rather than Skj B, which fragments l. 3 syntactically. However, both Skj B and Skald adopt Bb’s dugðit ‘did not do well’, with suffixed negative, rather than the positive 3rd pers. sg. pret. of Flat. Both readings are possible, and it could be argued that Bb’s is better on grounds of sense, viz. the Byzantine army did not do well but was saved by the brave Varangians.

Close

brota ‘breaker’

broti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): breaker < eldbroti (noun m.)

kennings

hryggs lagar eldbrota
‘sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea’
   = GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

the flame of the sea → GOLD
the sorrowful breaker of the GOLD → GENEROUS RULER = Byzantine king

notes

[3-4] lið hryggs lagar eldbrota dugði ‘the army of the sorrowful flame-breaker of the sea did well’: The reference is probably to the Byzantine army and its leader. The structure of this intercalary cl. follows Skald and NN §944 rather than Skj B, which fragments l. 3 syntactically. However, both Skj B and Skald adopt Bb’s dugðit ‘did not do well’, with suffixed negative, rather than the positive 3rd pers. sg. pret. of Flat. Both readings are possible, and it could be argued that Bb’s is better on grounds of sense, viz. the Byzantine army did not do well but was saved by the brave Varangians.

Close

veldi ‘of the kingdom’

veldi (noun n.): realm

Close

byr ‘the fair breeze’

byrr (noun m.; °-jar/-s; -ir, acc. -i/-u(SigrVal 188¹³)): favourable wind

kennings

byr branda;
‘the fair breeze of swords; ’
   = BATTLE

the fair breeze of swords; → BATTLE
Close

branda ‘of swords’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

kennings

byr branda;
‘the fair breeze of swords; ’
   = BATTLE

the fair breeze of swords; → BATTLE
Close

barð ‘of the prow’

barð (noun n.): prow, stern (of a ship) < barðraukn (noun n.)

[6] barðraukns: ‘barraugn’ Flat, ‘bard ravgns’ Bb

kennings

veðri rǫðuls barðraukns.
‘the storm of the sun of the prow-ox.’
   = BATTLE

the prow-ox. → SHIP
the sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

barð ‘of the prow’

barð (noun n.): prow, stern (of a ship) < barðraukn (noun n.)

[6] barðraukns: ‘barraugn’ Flat, ‘bard ravgns’ Bb

kennings

veðri rǫðuls barðraukns.
‘the storm of the sun of the prow-ox.’
   = BATTLE

the prow-ox. → SHIP
the sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

barð ‘of the prow’

barð (noun n.): prow, stern (of a ship) < barðraukn (noun n.)

[6] barðraukns: ‘barraugn’ Flat, ‘bard ravgns’ Bb

kennings

veðri rǫðuls barðraukns.
‘the storm of the sun of the prow-ox.’
   = BATTLE

the prow-ox. → SHIP
the sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

raukns ‘ox’

2. raukn (noun n.): draught animal < barðraukn (noun n.)

[6] barðraukns: ‘barraugn’ Flat, ‘bard ravgns’ Bb

kennings

veðri rǫðuls barðraukns.
‘the storm of the sun of the prow-ox.’
   = BATTLE

the prow-ox. → SHIP
the sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

raukns ‘ox’

2. raukn (noun n.): draught animal < barðraukn (noun n.)

[6] barðraukns: ‘barraugn’ Flat, ‘bard ravgns’ Bb

kennings

veðri rǫðuls barðraukns.
‘the storm of the sun of the prow-ox.’
   = BATTLE

the prow-ox. → SHIP
the sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

raukns ‘ox’

2. raukn (noun n.): draught animal < barðraukn (noun n.)

[6] barðraukns: ‘barraugn’ Flat, ‘bard ravgns’ Bb

kennings

veðri rǫðuls barðraukns.
‘the storm of the sun of the prow-ox.’
   = BATTLE

the prow-ox. → SHIP
the sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

harða ‘a very’

harða (adv.): very

Close

rǫðuls ‘of the sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

veðri rǫðuls barðraukns.
‘the storm of the sun of the prow-ox.’
   = BATTLE

the prow-ox. → SHIP
the sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

rǫðuls ‘of the sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

veðri rǫðuls barðraukns.
‘the storm of the sun of the prow-ox.’
   = BATTLE

the prow-ox. → SHIP
the sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

veðri ‘the storm’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm

kennings

veðri rǫðuls barðraukns.
‘the storm of the sun of the prow-ox.’
   = BATTLE

the prow-ox. → SHIP
the sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

Væringjar ‘Varangians’

væringi (noun m.): Varangian

Close

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