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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 5VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 5’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 11.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
456

Sonr ‘The son’

sonr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni): son

kennings

Sonr alls ráðanda mildr auðar,
‘The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, ’
   = Christ

The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, → Christ
Close

sté ‘ascended’

stíga (verb): step

Close

auðar ‘with riches’

1. auðr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-): wealth

kennings

Sonr alls ráðanda mildr auðar,
‘The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, ’
   = Christ

The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, → Christ
Close

mildr ‘generous’

mildr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): mild, gentle, gracious, generous

kennings

Sonr alls ráðanda mildr auðar,
‘The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, ’
   = Christ

The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, → Christ
Close

alls ‘of all’

allr (adj.): all

kennings

Sonr alls ráðanda mildr auðar,
‘The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, ’
   = Christ

The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, → Christ
Close

alls ‘of all’

allr (adj.): all

kennings

Sonr alls ráðanda mildr auðar,
‘The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, ’
   = Christ

The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, → Christ
Close

ráðanda ‘of the ruler’

ráðandi (noun m.; °-a; ráðendr): ruler

kennings

Sonr alls ráðanda mildr auðar,
‘The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, ’
   = Christ

The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, → Christ
Close

ráðanda ‘of the ruler’

ráðandi (noun m.; °-a; ráðendr): ruler

kennings

Sonr alls ráðanda mildr auðar,
‘The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, ’
   = Christ

The son of the ruler of all, generous with riches, → Christ
Close

Lofaðr ‘The praised’

lofaðr (adj.): praised

kennings

Lofaðr konungr dagbóls
‘The praised king of the day-home ’
   = God

the day-home → SKY/HEAVEN
The praised king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

sitr ‘sits’

sitja (verb): sit

notes

[5] sitr ‘sits’: The image of Christ seated in majesty was commonly depicted on the east wall of medieval Scandinavian and Icel. churches.

Close

englum ‘the angels’

1. engill (noun m.; °engils; englar): angel

[5] englum: ǫllum Bb

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ǫðlinga ‘of princes’

ǫðlingr (noun m.; °; -ar): prince, ruler

kennings

hirð dǫglings ǫðlinga
‘the cohort of the prince of princes ’
   = THE BLESSED

the prince of princes → God
the cohort of GOD → THE BLESSED

notes

[6, 7] dǫglings ǫðlinga ‘of the prince of princes [= God]’: Kennings of this type (‘king of kings’) signify Viking kings in earlier skaldic poetry (see Meissner, 371). Their use as God-kennings in Geisl (cf. dróttinn harra 25/7) and Anon Heildr (hæsta konungr jǫfra ‘the highest king of kings’ 12/3-4) may be either a borrowing from skaldic tradition or an imitation of the biblical variations on the theme (cf. Ezek. XXVI.7; 2 Macc. XIII.4; 1 Tim. VI.15; Rev. I.5, XVII.14, XIX.16). The figure appears frequently in Lat. and OE poetry.

Close

ǫðlinga ‘of princes’

ǫðlingr (noun m.; °; -ar): prince, ruler

kennings

hirð dǫglings ǫðlinga
‘the cohort of the prince of princes ’
   = THE BLESSED

the prince of princes → God
the cohort of GOD → THE BLESSED

notes

[6, 7] dǫglings ǫðlinga ‘of the prince of princes [= God]’: Kennings of this type (‘king of kings’) signify Viking kings in earlier skaldic poetry (see Meissner, 371). Their use as God-kennings in Geisl (cf. dróttinn harra 25/7) and Anon Heildr (hæsta konungr jǫfra ‘the highest king of kings’ 12/3-4) may be either a borrowing from skaldic tradition or an imitation of the biblical variations on the theme (cf. Ezek. XXVI.7; 2 Macc. XIII.4; 1 Tim. VI.15; Rev. I.5, XVII.14, XIX.16). The figure appears frequently in Lat. and OE poetry.

Close

hnígr ‘bows down’

hníga (verb): sink, fall

notes

[6] hnígr ‘bows down’: An allusion to the book of Revelation, where the twenty-four elders, the angels, and the blessed are said to fall down before the King of Kings (Rev. IV.10, V.8, VII.11).

Close

dǫglings ‘of the prince’

dǫglingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

kennings

hirð dǫglings ǫðlinga
‘the cohort of the prince of princes ’
   = THE BLESSED

the prince of princes → God
the cohort of GOD → THE BLESSED

notes

[6, 7] dǫglings ǫðlinga ‘of the prince of princes [= God]’: Kennings of this type (‘king of kings’) signify Viking kings in earlier skaldic poetry (see Meissner, 371). Their use as God-kennings in Geisl (cf. dróttinn harra 25/7) and Anon Heildr (hæsta konungr jǫfra ‘the highest king of kings’ 12/3-4) may be either a borrowing from skaldic tradition or an imitation of the biblical variations on the theme (cf. Ezek. XXVI.7; 2 Macc. XIII.4; 1 Tim. VI.15; Rev. I.5, XVII.14, XIX.16). The figure appears frequently in Lat. and OE poetry.

Close

dǫglings ‘of the prince’

dǫglingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

kennings

hirð dǫglings ǫðlinga
‘the cohort of the prince of princes ’
   = THE BLESSED

the prince of princes → God
the cohort of GOD → THE BLESSED

notes

[6, 7] dǫglings ǫðlinga ‘of the prince of princes [= God]’: Kennings of this type (‘king of kings’) signify Viking kings in earlier skaldic poetry (see Meissner, 371). Their use as God-kennings in Geisl (cf. dróttinn harra 25/7) and Anon Heildr (hæsta konungr jǫfra ‘the highest king of kings’ 12/3-4) may be either a borrowing from skaldic tradition or an imitation of the biblical variations on the theme (cf. Ezek. XXVI.7; 2 Macc. XIII.4; 1 Tim. VI.15; Rev. I.5, XVII.14, XIX.16). The figure appears frequently in Lat. and OE poetry.

Close

hirð ‘the cohort’

hirð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)): retinue

kennings

hirð dǫglings ǫðlinga
‘the cohort of the prince of princes ’
   = THE BLESSED

the prince of princes → God
the cohort of GOD → THE BLESSED
Close

dýrðar ‘of majesty’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory

[7] dýrðar: so Bb, ‘dyran’ Flat

notes

[7] dýrðar (gen. sg.) ‘of majesty’: Bb’s reading, dýrðar ‘honour, majesty’, followed by both Skj B and Skald, gives the construction á stóli dýrðar ‘on the throne of majesty’. The Flat reading, ‘dyran’, is grammatically impossible and metrically difficult.

Close

dag ‘of the day’

dagr (noun m.; °-s, dat. degi/dag/dagi(Thom¹ 332¹‡n.); -ar): day < dagból (noun n.)

kennings

Lofaðr konungr dagbóls
‘The praised king of the day-home ’
   = God

the day-home → SKY/HEAVEN
The praised king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

dag ‘of the day’

dagr (noun m.; °-s, dat. degi/dag/dagi(Thom¹ 332¹‡n.); -ar): day < dagból (noun n.)

kennings

Lofaðr konungr dagbóls
‘The praised king of the day-home ’
   = God

the day-home → SKY/HEAVEN
The praised king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

bóls ‘home’

ból (noun n.; °-s; -): dwelling < dagból (noun n.)

kennings

Lofaðr konungr dagbóls
‘The praised king of the day-home ’
   = God

the day-home → SKY/HEAVEN
The praised king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

bóls ‘home’

ból (noun n.; °-s; -): dwelling < dagból (noun n.)

kennings

Lofaðr konungr dagbóls
‘The praised king of the day-home ’
   = God

the day-home → SKY/HEAVEN
The praised king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

konungr ‘king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

kennings

Lofaðr konungr dagbóls
‘The praised king of the day-home ’
   = God

the day-home → SKY/HEAVEN
The praised king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

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