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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 4VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 4’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 10.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
345

allrar ‘to all’

allr (adj.): all

[1] allrar: engla Bb

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‘Carefully’

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of ‘’

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á ‘on’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[2] á: of Bb

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þriðja ‘the third’

þriði (num. ordinal): third

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ræðr ‘’

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með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

[3] með: ræðr Bb

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kunnr ‘known’

kunnr (adj.): known (?)

[4] kunnr: kunn Bb

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rétt ‘of right’

1. rétt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): [right] < réttlæti (noun n.): justice

notes

[4] sunnu réttlætis ‘the sun of righteousness’: Another kenning-like periphrasis based on Lat. iustitiæ sol oriens ‘the rising sun of righteousness’ (cf. Mal. IV.2) is a name for Christ in the sequence Deus Pater piissime (AH 15, 13), and Jón4 spells out the metaphor when it speaks of sialf rettlætis solin lukt i likam, drottinn vꜳr Jesus Cristus ‘the sun of righteousness itself, our Lord Jesus Christ, enclosed in a human body’ (Jón4 1874, 466). In ON prose the image is usually associated with the Incarnation and Nativity, but the Norw. homily Jn die ſancto paſce ‘On the holy day of Easter’ links it to the rising sun of Easter: At upp-runnínní ſolo ſáo þǽr ængil hia grof. þvi at þa megom vér ſcilia himneſca luti ef ret-lǽtes ſol ſkin í hiortum vaorum ‘At the rising of the sun they saw an angel by the grave, because then we may understand heavenly things if the sun of righteousness shines in our hearts’ (HómNo, 82).

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lætis ‘eousness’

læti (noun n.; °; -, dat. látum/lǽtum): agony < réttlæti (noun n.): justice

notes

[4] sunnu réttlætis ‘the sun of righteousness’: Another kenning-like periphrasis based on Lat. iustitiæ sol oriens ‘the rising sun of righteousness’ (cf. Mal. IV.2) is a name for Christ in the sequence Deus Pater piissime (AH 15, 13), and Jón4 spells out the metaphor when it speaks of sialf rettlætis solin lukt i likam, drottinn vꜳr Jesus Cristus ‘the sun of righteousness itself, our Lord Jesus Christ, enclosed in a human body’ (Jón4 1874, 466). In ON prose the image is usually associated with the Incarnation and Nativity, but the Norw. homily Jn die ſancto paſce ‘On the holy day of Easter’ links it to the rising sun of Easter: At upp-runnínní ſolo ſáo þǽr ængil hia grof. þvi at þa megom vér ſcilia himneſca luti ef ret-lǽtes ſol ſkin í hiortum vaorum ‘At the rising of the sun they saw an angel by the grave, because then we may understand heavenly things if the sun of righteousness shines in our hearts’ (HómNo, 82).

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sunnu ‘of the sun’

sunna (noun f.): sun

[4] sunnu: sunna Bb

notes

[4] sunnu réttlætis ‘the sun of righteousness’: Another kenning-like periphrasis based on Lat. iustitiæ sol oriens ‘the rising sun of righteousness’ (cf. Mal. IV.2) is a name for Christ in the sequence Deus Pater piissime (AH 15, 13), and Jón4 spells out the metaphor when it speaks of sialf rettlætis solin lukt i likam, drottinn vꜳr Jesus Cristus ‘the sun of righteousness itself, our Lord Jesus Christ, enclosed in a human body’ (Jón4 1874, 466). In ON prose the image is usually associated with the Incarnation and Nativity, but the Norw. homily Jn die ſancto paſce ‘On the holy day of Easter’ links it to the rising sun of Easter: At upp-runnínní ſolo ſáo þǽr ængil hia grof. þvi at þa megom vér ſcilia himneſca luti ef ret-lǽtes ſol ſkin í hiortum vaorum ‘At the rising of the sun they saw an angel by the grave, because then we may understand heavenly things if the sun of righteousness shines in our hearts’ (HómNo, 82).

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hǫlða ‘assembly of men’

hǫlðr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): man

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iflaust ‘beyond doubt’

iflauss (adj.): doubtless

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald) adopt the five Bb readings engla (l. 1), of (l. 2), ræðr (l. 3), kunn and sunna (l. 4) and construe: Réttlætis sunna, kunn engla skepnu, rann upp of þriðja dag; iðvandr Kristr ræðr hæstum krapti ‘The sun of righteousness, known by the host of angels (kendt af englenes skare), rose up on the third day; Christ, careful in his doings, possesses the greatest power’. This relies on an unlikely gen. construction and a forced understanding of skepna ‘creation, created thing’. In the Flat version, kunnr allrar skepnu ‘known to all creation’ (ll. 1, 4), the gen. is objective. According to Scripture (e.g. Rom. XVI.25-6), the Resurrection made the hidden mystery of Christ’s saving power known to all nations.

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