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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 34VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 34’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 34-5.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
333435

Satts ‘It is true’

2. sannr (adj.; °-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): true

[1] Satts (‘Satt er’): so Bb, Satt var Flat

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silfri ‘with silver’

silfr (noun n.; °-s): silver

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skreytta ‘ornamented’

skreyta (verb): adorn

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hollr ‘devoted’

hollr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): loyal

[2] hollr: hollz Bb

notes

[2] hollr ‘devoted’: Finnur Jónsson and Kock choose hollz, the Bb reading. Finnur construes, Gutthormr lét her gerva róðu grams, seggjum holls, skreytta silfri ok golli; þat es hróðr ‘Gutthormr had men make the cross of the king, true to men, adorned with silver and gold; that is praise’ (Skj B). Kock’s version is smoother: he construes seggjum holls grams with hróðr: ‘that is praise of the king, friendly to men’ (NN §§938 and 2247D). The Flat text can also be read as it stands, as given above.

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[2] ok: af Bb

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hér ‘here’

hér (adv.): here

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Gutthormr ‘Gutthormr’

Guthormr: Gutthormr, Guthormr

[3] Gutthormr: so Bb, ‘guthorm’ Flat

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gerva ‘made’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[3] gerva: so Bb, ‘g[...]fa’ Flat

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grams ‘of the king’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

[4] grams hróðr vas þat róðu: ‘[...]ar þat [...]du’ Flat, grams hróðr er þat róðu Bb

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hróðr ‘praise’

hróðr (noun m.): encomium, praise

[4] grams hróðr vas þat róðu: ‘[...]ar þat [...]du’ Flat, grams hróðr er þat róðu Bb

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vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[4] grams hróðr vas þat róðu: ‘[...]ar þat [...]du’ Flat, grams hróðr er þat róðu Bb

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þat ‘that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

[4] grams hróðr vas þat róðu: ‘[...]ar þat [...]du’ Flat, grams hróðr er þat róðu Bb

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róðu ‘an image’

róða (noun f.; °-u; -ur): [an image]

[4] grams hróðr vas þat róðu: ‘[...]ar þat [...]du’ Flat, grams hróðr er þat róðu Bb

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hafa ‘have’

hafa (verb): have

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jartegna ‘miracles’

jarteign (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): miracle

notes

[6] þeira jartegna ‘of those miracles’: This phrase may be taken either with mark (l. 7), as here, or in the first cl. of helmingr b, with at minnum ‘as a reminder of those miracles’.

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þeira ‘of those’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[6] þeira jartegna ‘of those miracles’: This phrase may be taken either with mark (l. 7), as here, or in the first cl. of helmingr b, with at minnum ‘as a reminder of those miracles’.

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stendr ‘stands’

standa (verb): stand

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Krists ‘of Krist’

Kristr (noun m.; °-s/-, dat. -i; -ar): Christ

notes

[7, 8] í miðri Krists kirkju ‘in the middle of Kristkirken’: This can be understood as a simple reference to the position of Gutthormr’s crucifix in the church, or as a more grandiose claim that the sign of Óláfr’s honour holds a central place in Christendom. The Norwegians were proud of the popularity of Trondheim as a pilgrimage goal.

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[7, 8] í miðri Krists kirkju ‘in the middle of Kristkirken’: This can be understood as a simple reference to the position of Gutthormr’s crucifix in the church, or as a more grandiose claim that the sign of Óláfr’s honour holds a central place in Christendom. The Norwegians were proud of the popularity of Trondheim as a pilgrimage goal.

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kirkju ‘kirken’

kirkja (noun f.): church

notes

[7, 8] í miðri Krists kirkju ‘in the middle of Kristkirken’: This can be understood as a simple reference to the position of Gutthormr’s crucifix in the church, or as a more grandiose claim that the sign of Óláfr’s honour holds a central place in Christendom. The Norwegians were proud of the popularity of Trondheim as a pilgrimage goal.

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konungs ‘the king’s’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

kennings

konungs niðr
‘the king’s relative ’
   = Gutthormr

the king’s relative → Gutthormr
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niðr ‘relative’

1. niðr (noun m.; °-s; niðjar/niðir, acc. niði): son, kinsman, relative

[8] niðr: so Bb, ‘[...]’ Flat

kennings

konungs niðr
‘the king’s relative ’
   = Gutthormr

the king’s relative → Gutthormr

notes

[8] niðr ‘relative’: According to earlier eds, Flat read viðr ‘wood’, which has obvious associations with the image of the Cross, but makes no sense as the only possible subject of gaf ‘gave’.

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gaf ‘gave’

gefa (verb): give

[8] gaf þat miðri: so Bb, ‘g[...]f [...]id[...]’ Flat

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miðri ‘the middle’

miðr (adj.): middle, less, hardly

[8] gaf þat miðri: so Bb, ‘g[...]f [...]id[...]’ Flat

notes

[7, 8] í miðri Krists kirkju ‘in the middle of Kristkirken’: This can be understood as a simple reference to the position of Gutthormr’s crucifix in the church, or as a more grandiose claim that the sign of Óláfr’s honour holds a central place in Christendom. The Norwegians were proud of the popularity of Trondheim as a pilgrimage goal.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

HómNo and ÓHLeg use language strikingly similar to this st. in their accounts of Gutthormr’s donation of the memorial cross: ok let gera þegar roðo ſva myccla ór ſilfri at allz coſtar er hon lengri ok mæri en manzvaxtar. ok pryddi þegar þeſ hælga manz húſ með þærri dyrð ſér til ſalo-bota. ok til minni ok fra-ſagnar iarteina þærra en hinn helgi Oláfr konungr gerði þa við hann ‘and he immediately had such a large silver image made, that it is at least taller and bigger than a man. And he immediately ornamented the house of this holy man with that treasure for the salvation of his soul and as a reminder and a record of the miracles which the holy King Óláfr performed then for him’ (HómNo, 113; cf. ÓHLeg 1982, 212). — [3, 4, 8]: Flat’s text is all but illegible in ll. 3, 4 and 8. In these cases, Bb is the only witness now, although earlier eds were able to read more of Flat. Skj A reports Flat’s viðr for Bb’s niðr in l. 8.

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