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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 33VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 33’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 33-4.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
323334

opt ‘often’

opt (adv.): often

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inn ‘’

2. inn (art.): the

notes

[1, 2, 4] konungr inn mildi litrauðs bliks unnar ‘the king, generous with the red-coloured light of the wave [GOLD]’: The kenning may be understood on several levels. It clearly refers to Óláfr, but the light imagery also recalls Christ, ‘the king of the sun’, whose radiance is associated with the saint. The ‘king’ in this multivalent metaphor can be the mortal Óláfr, generous with gold; the heavenly Óláfr, generous with miracles; or Christ, generous with the grace of his saints. Cederschiöld proposed emending Bb’s ‘aunnar’ (l. 2) to unnar, and this has been followed by all eds.

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mildi ‘generous’

mildr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): mild, gentle, gracious, generous

notes

[1, 2, 4] konungr inn mildi litrauðs bliks unnar ‘the king, generous with the red-coloured light of the wave [GOLD]’: The kenning may be understood on several levels. It clearly refers to Óláfr, but the light imagery also recalls Christ, ‘the king of the sun’, whose radiance is associated with the saint. The ‘king’ in this multivalent metaphor can be the mortal Óláfr, generous with gold; the heavenly Óláfr, generous with miracles; or Christ, generous with the grace of his saints. Cederschiöld proposed emending Bb’s ‘aunnar’ (l. 2) to unnar, and this has been followed by all eds.

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unnar ‘of the wave’

2. unnr (noun f.): wave

[2] unnar: ‘aunnar’ Bb

kennings

litrauðs bliks unnar
‘with the red-coloured light of the wave, ’
   = GOLD

with the red-coloured light of the wave, → GOLD

notes

[1, 2, 4] konungr inn mildi litrauðs bliks unnar ‘the king, generous with the red-coloured light of the wave [GOLD]’: The kenning may be understood on several levels. It clearly refers to Óláfr, but the light imagery also recalls Christ, ‘the king of the sun’, whose radiance is associated with the saint. The ‘king’ in this multivalent metaphor can be the mortal Óláfr, generous with gold; the heavenly Óláfr, generous with miracles; or Christ, generous with the grace of his saints. Cederschiöld proposed emending Bb’s ‘aunnar’ (l. 2) to unnar, and this has been followed by all eds.

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bliks ‘light’

blik (noun n.): gleam

kennings

litrauðs bliks unnar
‘with the red-coloured light of the wave, ’
   = GOLD

with the red-coloured light of the wave, → GOLD

notes

[1, 2, 4] konungr inn mildi litrauðs bliks unnar ‘the king, generous with the red-coloured light of the wave [GOLD]’: The kenning may be understood on several levels. It clearly refers to Óláfr, but the light imagery also recalls Christ, ‘the king of the sun’, whose radiance is associated with the saint. The ‘king’ in this multivalent metaphor can be the mortal Óláfr, generous with gold; the heavenly Óláfr, generous with miracles; or Christ, generous with the grace of his saints. Cederschiöld proposed emending Bb’s ‘aunnar’ (l. 2) to unnar, and this has been followed by all eds.

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miklum ‘great’

mikill (adj.; °mikinn): great, large

[2] miklum: miklu Bb

notes

[2] miklum ‘great’: The ms. reads ‘miklu’, the n. dat. sg. form, which is grammatically impossible (there is no corresponding noun in the helmingr).

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Krists ‘of Christ’

Kristr (noun m.; °-s/-, dat. -i; -ar): Christ

[3] Krists: krist Bb

kennings

lim Krists.
‘the limb of Christ. ’
   = SAINT = Óláfr

the limb of Christ. → SAINT = Óláfr

notes

[3] mærik lim Krists ‘I praise the limb of Christ’: Previous eds (Cederschiöld, Skj B and Skald) have emended ms ‘lin’ to lim and ‘Krist’ to Krists, creating a kenning, ‘limb of Christ’, for Óláfr (cf. lim konungs himna sals ‘limb of the king of the hall of heaven’, 66/6). A recent suggestion in Chase 2005, 83 and 149 has been to emend to linan and construe Krist mærik linan ‘I praise merciful Christ’. However, the l. then becomes unmetrical, as the word in question must be monosyllabic (there is no resolution on a word in position 4 in an XE l. until C14th; for the terminology see Gade 1995).

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mærik ‘I praise’

mæra (verb): praise

notes

[3] mærik lim Krists ‘I praise the limb of Christ’: Previous eds (Cederschiöld, Skj B and Skald) have emended ms ‘lin’ to lim and ‘Krist’ to Krists, creating a kenning, ‘limb of Christ’, for Óláfr (cf. lim konungs himna sals ‘limb of the king of the hall of heaven’, 66/6). A recent suggestion in Chase 2005, 83 and 149 has been to emend to linan and construe Krist mærik linan ‘I praise merciful Christ’. However, the l. then becomes unmetrical, as the word in question must be monosyllabic (there is no resolution on a word in position 4 in an XE l. until C14th; for the terminology see Gade 1995).

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lim ‘the limb’

2. lim (noun n.; °; -): limb

[3] lim: ‘lin’ Bb

kennings

lim Krists.
‘the limb of Christ. ’
   = SAINT = Óláfr

the limb of Christ. → SAINT = Óláfr

notes

[3] mærik lim Krists ‘I praise the limb of Christ’: Previous eds (Cederschiöld, Skj B and Skald) have emended ms ‘lin’ to lim and ‘Krist’ to Krists, creating a kenning, ‘limb of Christ’, for Óláfr (cf. lim konungs himna sals ‘limb of the king of the hall of heaven’, 66/6). A recent suggestion in Chase 2005, 83 and 149 has been to emend to linan and construe Krist mærik linan ‘I praise merciful Christ’. However, the l. then becomes unmetrical, as the word in question must be monosyllabic (there is no resolution on a word in position 4 in an XE l. until C14th; for the terminology see Gade 1995).

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leysta ‘rescued’

leysa (verb): release, loosen, redeem

notes

[3] leysta ‘rescued’: The form is acc. sg. f., in agreement with ǫld ‘men’ (l. 1) rather than the usual sg. n. inflection. This was an accepted means of forming the perf. (ANG §541), and Einarr used it here to provide the requisite trochee at the end of the l.

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lit ‘with the red’

2. litr (adj.): coloured < litrauðr (adj.)

kennings

litrauðs bliks unnar
‘with the red-coloured light of the wave, ’
   = GOLD

with the red-coloured light of the wave, → GOLD

notes

[1, 2, 4] konungr inn mildi litrauðs bliks unnar ‘the king, generous with the red-coloured light of the wave [GOLD]’: The kenning may be understood on several levels. It clearly refers to Óláfr, but the light imagery also recalls Christ, ‘the king of the sun’, whose radiance is associated with the saint. The ‘king’ in this multivalent metaphor can be the mortal Óláfr, generous with gold; the heavenly Óláfr, generous with miracles; or Christ, generous with the grace of his saints. Cederschiöld proposed emending Bb’s ‘aunnar’ (l. 2) to unnar, and this has been followed by all eds.

Close

rauðs ‘coloured’

rauðr (adj.; °compar. -ari): red < litrauðr (adj.)

kennings

litrauðs bliks unnar
‘with the red-coloured light of the wave, ’
   = GOLD

with the red-coloured light of the wave, → GOLD

notes

[1, 2, 4] konungr inn mildi litrauðs bliks unnar ‘the king, generous with the red-coloured light of the wave [GOLD]’: The kenning may be understood on several levels. It clearly refers to Óláfr, but the light imagery also recalls Christ, ‘the king of the sun’, whose radiance is associated with the saint. The ‘king’ in this multivalent metaphor can be the mortal Óláfr, generous with gold; the heavenly Óláfr, generous with miracles; or Christ, generous with the grace of his saints. Cederschiöld proposed emending Bb’s ‘aunnar’ (l. 2) to unnar, and this has been followed by all eds.

Close

konungr ‘The king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

notes

[1, 2, 4] konungr inn mildi litrauðs bliks unnar ‘the king, generous with the red-coloured light of the wave [GOLD]’: The kenning may be understood on several levels. It clearly refers to Óláfr, but the light imagery also recalls Christ, ‘the king of the sun’, whose radiance is associated with the saint. The ‘king’ in this multivalent metaphor can be the mortal Óláfr, generous with gold; the heavenly Óláfr, generous with miracles; or Christ, generous with the grace of his saints. Cederschiöld proposed emending Bb’s ‘aunnar’ (l. 2) to unnar, and this has been followed by all eds.

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Greitt ‘alleviate’

greiða (verb): alleviate

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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‘can’

mega (verb): may, might

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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gumnum ‘for men’

gumi (noun m.; °-a; gumar/gumnar): man

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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létta ‘easily’

léttr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): easy, light

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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guðs ‘God’s’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

kennings

Guðs ríðari
‘God’s knight ’
   = SAINT = Óláfr

God’s knight → SAINT = Óláfr
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ríðari ‘knight’

riddari (noun m.; °-a; -ar): knight

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

kennings

Guðs ríðari
‘God’s knight ’
   = SAINT = Óláfr

God’s knight → SAINT = Óláfr
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stríðum ‘afflictions’

2. stríð (noun n.; °-s; -): affliction

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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rǫskr ‘brave’

rǫskr (adj.): brave

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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þiggr ‘gets’

þiggja (verb): receive, get

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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allt ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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sem ‘’

sem (conj.): as, which

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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œskir ‘he desires’

óska (verb): desire

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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Óláfr ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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af ‘from’

af (prep.): from

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

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gram ‘the king’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

kennings

gram sólar.
‘the king of the sun.’
   = God

the king of the sun. → God
Close

sólar ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Greitt m. g. l.’ Bb

kennings

gram sólar.
‘the king of the sun.’
   = God

the king of the sun. → God
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