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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 23VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 23’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 25-6.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
222324

Þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

[1] Þar kom: so Bb, Kom þar Flat

notes

[1] þar kom ‘there came’: It is necessary to adopt Bb’s word order over Flat’s here in order to provide internal rhyme on a lift in position one.

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kom ‘came’

koma (verb; kem, kom/kvam, kominn): come

[1] Þar kom: so Bb, Kom þar Flat

notes

[1] þar kom ‘there came’: It is necessary to adopt Bb’s word order over Flat’s here in order to provide internal rhyme on a lift in position one.

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blindr ‘A blind’

blindr (adj.; °compar. -ari): blind

kennings

Blindr njótr auðar
‘A blind enjoyer of wealth ’
   = MAN

A blind enjoyer of wealth → MAN
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blíð ‘the happy’

blíðr (adj.; °n. sg. nom. & acc. blítt/blíðt; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): gentle, happy

notes

[2] blíð verk ‘happy work’: This can refer either to Einarr’s work of poetry or Óláfr’s miraculous act of healing.

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verk ‘work’

verk (noun n.; °-s; -): deed

notes

[2] blíð verk ‘happy work’: This can refer either to Einarr’s work of poetry or Óláfr’s miraculous act of healing.

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muni ‘somewhat’

munu (verb): will, must

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síðar ‘later’

síðarr (adv.): later

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auðar ‘of wealth’

1. auðr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-): wealth

kennings

Blindr njótr auðar
‘A blind enjoyer of wealth ’
   = MAN

A blind enjoyer of wealth → MAN

notes

[3] njótr auðar ‘enjoyer of wealth [MAN]’: Einarr extends the sense of njótr in this traditional formula to signify not so much the material gifts of a chief to his retainers as the divine mercies people receive from God by way of the saint. He uses kennings of this type throughout the poem to indicate the beneficiaries of Óláfr’s miracles.

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njótr ‘enjoyer’

njótr (noun m.): user, enjoyer

kennings

Blindr njótr auðar
‘A blind enjoyer of wealth ’
   = MAN

A blind enjoyer of wealth → MAN

notes

[3] njótr auðar ‘enjoyer of wealth [MAN]’: Einarr extends the sense of njótr in this traditional formula to signify not so much the material gifts of a chief to his retainers as the divine mercies people receive from God by way of the saint. He uses kennings of this type throughout the poem to indicate the beneficiaries of Óláfr’s miracles.

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jǫfurs ‘the prince’s’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

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þvegit ‘washed’

1. þvá (verb): wash

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hǫfðu ‘had’

hafa (verb): have

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Sjón ‘sight’

sjón (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): eyes, sight < sjónbraut (noun f.)

kennings

sjónbrautir sínar
‘his sight-paths ’
   = EYES

his sight-paths → EYES
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brautir ‘paths’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < sjónbraut (noun f.)

kennings

sjónbrautir sínar
‘his sight-paths ’
   = EYES

his sight-paths → EYES
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þó ‘washed’

1. þvá (verb): wash

[5] þó: strauk Bb

notes

[5] þó ‘washed’: Skj B and Skald adopt Bb’s reading here, strauk < strjúka ‘to stroke, rub, wipe’; it is the difficilior lectio.

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sínar ‘his’

3. sinn (pron.; °f. sín, n. sitt): (refl. poss. pron.)

kennings

sjónbrautir sínar
‘his sight-paths ’
   = EYES

his sight-paths → EYES
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ôrr ‘The messenger’

1. árr (noun m.; °dat. ár; ǽrir/árar, acc. áru): messenger

kennings

Ôrr orms landa
‘The messenger of the serpent’s lands ’
   = MAN

the serpent’s lands → GOLD
The messenger of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[7, 8] ôrr orms landa ‘messenger of the serpent’s lands [GOLD > MAN]’: The kenning is parallel to auðar njótr (l. 3). rr ‘servant’ or ‘messenger’ as a base-word may signify that the cured man is the vehicle through which Óláfr’s favour with God is made known in the world.

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Óláfs ‘of Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

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dreyra ‘with the blood’

dreyri (noun m.; °-a): blood

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orms ‘of the serpent’s’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

kennings

Ôrr orms landa
‘The messenger of the serpent’s lands ’
   = MAN

the serpent’s lands → GOLD
The messenger of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[7, 8] ôrr orms landa ‘messenger of the serpent’s lands [GOLD > MAN]’: The kenning is parallel to auðar njótr (l. 3). rr ‘servant’ or ‘messenger’ as a base-word may signify that the cured man is the vehicle through which Óláfr’s favour with God is made known in the world.

Close

orms ‘of the serpent’s’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

kennings

Ôrr orms landa
‘The messenger of the serpent’s lands ’
   = MAN

the serpent’s lands → GOLD
The messenger of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[7, 8] ôrr orms landa ‘messenger of the serpent’s lands [GOLD > MAN]’: The kenning is parallel to auðar njótr (l. 3). rr ‘servant’ or ‘messenger’ as a base-word may signify that the cured man is the vehicle through which Óláfr’s favour with God is made known in the world.

Close

landa ‘lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

kennings

Ôrr orms landa
‘The messenger of the serpent’s lands ’
   = MAN

the serpent’s lands → GOLD
The messenger of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[7, 8] ôrr orms landa ‘messenger of the serpent’s lands [GOLD > MAN]’: The kenning is parallel to auðar njótr (l. 3). rr ‘servant’ or ‘messenger’ as a base-word may signify that the cured man is the vehicle through which Óláfr’s favour with God is made known in the world.

Close

landa ‘lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

kennings

Ôrr orms landa
‘The messenger of the serpent’s lands ’
   = MAN

the serpent’s lands → GOLD
The messenger of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[7, 8] ôrr orms landa ‘messenger of the serpent’s lands [GOLD > MAN]’: The kenning is parallel to auðar njótr (l. 3). rr ‘servant’ or ‘messenger’ as a base-word may signify that the cured man is the vehicle through which Óláfr’s favour with God is made known in the world.

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