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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 17VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 17’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 21.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
161718

Vakit ‘broke out’

4. vaka (verb): awaken

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Stikla ‘Stikle’

stikill (noun m.; °dat. stikli; stiklar): (Stikle-)

notes

[1, 2] Stiklastǫðum ‘Stiklestad’: The battle of Stiklestad, in Verdalen, Trøndelag, at which Óláfr lost his life, took place on 29 July 1030. The p. n. occurs with tmesis every time it appears in poetry, doubtless because of the double alliteration on ‘st’, which would require resolution of the two short syllables (-staðir), impossible in position 3 in skaldic poetry before C14th.

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víðlendr ‘the widely-landed’

víðlendr (adj.): widely-landed

kennings

víðlendr lituðr almreyrs
‘the widely-landed reddener of the elm-reed ’
   = WARRIOR

the elm-reed → ARROW
the widely-landed reddener of the ARROW → WARRIOR
Close

stǫðum ‘stad’

1. staðr (noun m.; °-ar/-s; -ir): place

notes

[1, 2] Stiklastǫðum ‘Stiklestad’: The battle of Stiklestad, in Verdalen, Trøndelag, at which Óláfr lost his life, took place on 29 July 1030. The p. n. occurs with tmesis every time it appears in poetry, doubtless because of the double alliteration on ‘st’, which would require resolution of the two short syllables (-staðir), impossible in position 3 in skaldic poetry before C14th.

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Innþrœndum ‘of the Innþrœndir’

innþrœndr (noun m.): one of the Innþrœndir

notes

[3] Innþrœndum (poss. dat. pl.): The Innþrœndir were people from the inner districts of Trøndelag.

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alm ‘of the elm’

almr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): bow, elm-bow < almreyr (noun n.)

[4] almreyrs: alm reyr Flat, ‘almreys’ Bb

kennings

víðlendr lituðr almreyrs
‘the widely-landed reddener of the elm-reed ’
   = WARRIOR

the elm-reed → ARROW
the widely-landed reddener of the ARROW → WARRIOR

notes

[4] lituðr almreyrs ‘reddener of the elm-reed [ARROW > WARRIOR]’: Bb’s ‘almreys’, presumably for almreyrs ‘of the elm-reed’, is preferred over Flat’s triple cpd almreyrlituðr ‘elm-reed-reddener’, which is exceptional in skaldic usage.

Close

alm ‘of the elm’

almr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): bow, elm-bow < almreyr (noun n.)

[4] almreyrs: alm reyr Flat, ‘almreys’ Bb

kennings

víðlendr lituðr almreyrs
‘the widely-landed reddener of the elm-reed ’
   = WARRIOR

the elm-reed → ARROW
the widely-landed reddener of the ARROW → WARRIOR

notes

[4] lituðr almreyrs ‘reddener of the elm-reed [ARROW > WARRIOR]’: Bb’s ‘almreys’, presumably for almreyrs ‘of the elm-reed’, is preferred over Flat’s triple cpd almreyrlituðr ‘elm-reed-reddener’, which is exceptional in skaldic usage.

Close

reyrs ‘reed’

2. reyr (noun n.): reed < almreyr (noun n.)

[4] almreyrs: alm reyr Flat, ‘almreys’ Bb

kennings

víðlendr lituðr almreyrs
‘the widely-landed reddener of the elm-reed ’
   = WARRIOR

the elm-reed → ARROW
the widely-landed reddener of the ARROW → WARRIOR

notes

[4] lituðr almreyrs ‘reddener of the elm-reed [ARROW > WARRIOR]’: Bb’s ‘almreys’, presumably for almreyrs ‘of the elm-reed’, is preferred over Flat’s triple cpd almreyrlituðr ‘elm-reed-reddener’, which is exceptional in skaldic usage.

Close

reyrs ‘reed’

2. reyr (noun n.): reed < almreyr (noun n.)

[4] almreyrs: alm reyr Flat, ‘almreys’ Bb

kennings

víðlendr lituðr almreyrs
‘the widely-landed reddener of the elm-reed ’
   = WARRIOR

the elm-reed → ARROW
the widely-landed reddener of the ARROW → WARRIOR

notes

[4] lituðr almreyrs ‘reddener of the elm-reed [ARROW > WARRIOR]’: Bb’s ‘almreys’, presumably for almreyrs ‘of the elm-reed’, is preferred over Flat’s triple cpd almreyrlituðr ‘elm-reed-reddener’, which is exceptional in skaldic usage.

Close

lituðr ‘reddener’

lituðr (noun m.): colourer

kennings

víðlendr lituðr almreyrs
‘the widely-landed reddener of the elm-reed ’
   = WARRIOR

the elm-reed → ARROW
the widely-landed reddener of the ARROW → WARRIOR

notes

[4] lituðr almreyrs ‘reddener of the elm-reed [ARROW > WARRIOR]’: Bb’s ‘almreys’, presumably for almreyrs ‘of the elm-reed’, is preferred over Flat’s triple cpd almreyrlituðr ‘elm-reed-reddener’, which is exceptional in skaldic usage.

Close

hvassan ‘the brave’

hvass (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): keen, sharp

kennings

hvassan branddríf
‘the brave sword-driver ’
   = WARRIOR

the brave sword-driver → WARRIOR
Close

brigðu ‘from the transitory’

brigðr (adj.): fickle

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brand ‘sword-’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire < branddrífr (noun m.)

[8] brand‑: baug‑ Bb

kennings

hvassan branddríf
‘the brave sword-driver ’
   = WARRIOR

the brave sword-driver → WARRIOR

notes

[8] branddríf ‘sword-driver’: A typical warrior-kenning, but there may also be a foreshadowing of the Hneitir miracle (sts 47-50), in which the supernatural Óláfr causes his sword to move under its own power.

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dríf ‘driver’

1. drífr (noun m.): [strewer] < branddrífr (noun m.)

kennings

hvassan branddríf
‘the brave sword-driver ’
   = WARRIOR

the brave sword-driver → WARRIOR

notes

[8] branddríf ‘sword-driver’: A typical warrior-kenning, but there may also be a foreshadowing of the Hneitir miracle (sts 47-50), in which the supernatural Óláfr causes his sword to move under its own power.

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numinn ‘was taken’

1. nema (verb): to take

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