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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Bǫlv Hardr 1II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Bǫlverkr Arnórsson, Drápa about Haraldr harðráði 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 286-8.

Bǫlverkr ArnórssonDrápa about Haraldr harðráði
12

Mildingr ‘Generous one’

mildingr (noun m.; °-s): ruler, generous one

[1] Mildingr: Mildr Tóm, Bb, Mildingar FskBˣ

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straukt ‘you wiped’

strjúka (verb): furbish, wipe

[1] straukt: strauk 321ˣ, Flat, ‘streytu’ FskBˣ

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of ‘’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[1] of mækis: ‘[…]’ 325VII

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mækis ‘the sword’s’

mækir (noun m.): sword

[1] of mækis: ‘[…]’ 325VII

notes

[1-2] munn mækis ‘the sword’s mouth’: A fairly common image referring to the blade of the sword (see LP: munnr; Falk 1914, 17). It is not quite clear what type of sword was meant by mækir (see Falk 1914, 14-16).

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munn ‘mouth’

munnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): mouth

notes

[1-2] munn mækis ‘the sword’s mouth’: A fairly common image referring to the blade of the sword (see LP: munnr; Falk 1914, 17). It is not quite clear what type of sword was meant by mækir (see Falk 1914, 14-16).

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lézt ‘you had finished’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[2] lézt: hann lét 321ˣ, ‘bort’ 73aˣ

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gunni ‘the fight’

gunnr (noun f.): battle

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holds ‘flesh’

hold (noun n.; °-s; -): flesh

[3] holds: ‘hollz’ 39, J2ˣ, Holm2, 325V, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, Hr, Flat, ‘helldz’ 321ˣ, ‘hellzt’ 73aˣ, hollr 61, Tóm, Bb

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vannt ‘’

2. vinna (verb): perform, work

[3] vannt: vann E, J2ˣ, FskAˣ

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fylldan ‘filled’

fylla (verb): fill

[3] fylldan: ‘főlldan’ 972ˣ(538vb), fallinn Tóm

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hrás ‘with raw’

hrár (adj.): raw

[4] hrás: ‘hrass’ 321ˣ, ‘hars’ 73aˣ, 325V, hræs Tóm, ‘ræss’ FskBˣ

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þaut ‘howled’

þjóta (verb): roar

[4] þaut: þraut 321ˣ

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vargr ‘the wolf’

vargr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): wolf

[4] vargr: ‘isings’ 73aˣ, ulfr 61, Tóm, Bb

notes

[4] vargr ‘the wolf’: The variant ulfr ‘wolf’ (so 61, Tóm, Bb) renders the l. unmetrical (two alliterating staves in an even l.).

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í ‘on’

í (prep.): in, into

[4] í ási: vargi 73aˣ

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En ‘And’

2. en (conj.): but, and

[5] En: om. 73aˣ, ‘eingan’ Hr

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gramr ‘ruler’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

[5] gramr: gram Holm4, mann Hr

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‘never’

né (conj.): nor

[5] né: en 61

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frák ‘heard of’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

[5] frák (‘ec fra’): ‘ek freg’ Flat

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fremra ‘more distinguished’

framr (adj.; °compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr): outstanding, foremost

[5] fremra: ‘fremro’ 73aˣ, fremri 325V

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frið ‘a peace’

friðr (noun m.): peace < friðskerðir (noun m.): peace-diminisher

[6] friðskerði: friðskerðir 39, 61, Tóm, Bb, H, Hr, folkherði E, folkherðir J2ˣ, Flat

kennings

friðskerði
‘a peace-diminisher ’
   = WARRIOR

a peace-diminisher → WARRIOR

notes

[6] friðskerði ‘peace-diminisher [WARRIOR]’: The variant folkherði ‘battle-increaser’ (so E, J2ˣ, Flat) is possible but lower on the stemma.

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skerði ‘diminisher’

skerðir (noun m.): diminisher < friðskerðir (noun m.): peace-diminisher

[6] friðskerði: friðskerðir 39, 61, Tóm, Bb, H, Hr, folkherði E, folkherðir J2ˣ, Flat

kennings

friðskerði
‘a peace-diminisher ’
   = WARRIOR

a peace-diminisher → WARRIOR

notes

[6] friðskerði ‘peace-diminisher [WARRIOR]’: The variant folkherði ‘battle-increaser’ (so E, J2ˣ, Flat) is possible but lower on the stemma.

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þér ‘than you’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

[6] þér: þar 972ˣ(538vb), 321ˣ, þeir 73aˣ, 325V

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vast ‘you were’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[7] vast (‘vartu’): komtu E, J2ˣ, Holm2, 972ˣ(538va), 972ˣ(538vb), 321ˣ, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325V, 61, Tóm, Bb, vanntu Hr

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ár ‘year’

2. ár (noun n.; °-s; -): year, year’s abundance

[7] ár it næsta: r in næstu H, Hr

notes

[7] it næsta ár ‘the following year’: Most of the Hkr mss and Fsk give the reading it næsta ár vast austr í Gǫrðum ‘the following year you were east in Russia’. That information is, however, somewhat at odds with the prose, because Haraldr spent several years with Jaroslav. Some of the ÓH mss (and E, J2ˣ) try to remedy that by replacing vast ‘were’ with komt ‘came’: it næsta ár komt austr í Garða ‘the following year you came east to Russia’. The H-Hr variant r in næstu ‘the following years’ is in keeping with the prose.

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it ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

[7] ár it næsta: r in næstu H, Hr

notes

[7] it næsta ár ‘the following year’: Most of the Hkr mss and Fsk give the reading it næsta ár vast austr í Gǫrðum ‘the following year you were east in Russia’. That information is, however, somewhat at odds with the prose, because Haraldr spent several years with Jaroslav. Some of the ÓH mss (and E, J2ˣ) try to remedy that by replacing vast ‘were’ with komt ‘came’: it næsta ár komt austr í Garða ‘the following year you came east to Russia’. The H-Hr variant r in næstu ‘the following years’ is in keeping with the prose.

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næsta ‘following’

nærri (adj. comp.; °superl. nǽstr): near, nearer, next

[7] ár it næsta: r in næstu H, Hr

notes

[7] it næsta ár ‘the following year’: Most of the Hkr mss and Fsk give the reading it næsta ár vast austr í Gǫrðum ‘the following year you were east in Russia’. That information is, however, somewhat at odds with the prose, because Haraldr spent several years with Jaroslav. Some of the ÓH mss (and E, J2ˣ) try to remedy that by replacing vast ‘were’ with komt ‘came’: it næsta ár komt austr í Garða ‘the following year you came east to Russia’. The H-Hr variant r in næstu ‘the following years’ is in keeping with the prose.

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ǫrðuglyndr ‘resolute’

ǫrðiglyndr (adj.): [resolute]

[8] ǫrðuglyndr: ǫrðiglyndr F, E, J2ˣ, Holm4, 325V, FskAˣ, Hr, ǫrðiglundr Holm2, 61, Tóm, ‘aurdiglindr’ 972ˣ(538va), 321ˣ, 73aˣ, ‘aurdiglunder’ 972ˣ(538vb), ‘ordvnlundr’ Bb, ‘orðuglindr’ FskBˣ, ‘auro᷎glyndr’ Flat

notes

[8] ǫrðuglyndr ‘resolute’: Lit. ‘upright-minded’. The suffixes -ug and -ig (ǫrðiglyndr) represent two different grades of ablaut, and both forms are acceptable.

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

[8] í: á 972ˣ(538va)

notes

[8] í Gǫrðum ‘in Russia’: See Note to Hharð Gamv 1/7.

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Gǫrðum ‘Russia’

Garðar (noun m.): Russia

[8] Gǫrðum: garða 73aˣ, Holm4, 325V, 61, Bb, garði Tóm

notes

[8] í Gǫrðum ‘in Russia’: See Note to Hharð Gamv 1/7.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

After the battle of Stiklestad in 1030, Haraldr escaped to Sweden. The next summer (1031) he sought refuge with Jaroslav of Novgorod in Russia, where he spent some years in Jaroslav’s army.

For Haraldr’s escape from Stiklestad and the ensuing events, see also Hharð Gamv 1, Hharð Lv 1-2a, 2b and ÞjóðA Sex 1. His stay with Jaroslav is documented in ÞjóðA Run 1, 3. See also Sigfús Blöndal 1978, 54-5.

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