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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Magndr 10II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Magnússdrápa 10’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 219-20.

Arnórr jarlaskáld ÞórðarsonMagnússdrápa
91011

ódæsinn ‘The unsluggish’

ódæsinn (adj./verb p.p.): [unsluggish]

[2] ódæsinn: ‘odælinn’ E, ‘odræsinn’ 325V, Tóm

notes

[2] ódæsinn ‘unsluggish’: I.e. ‘energetic’. Ódæsinn is recorded only here, although dæsinn and dásinn, both ‘inactive, feeble’ each appears once in LP, and dási m. ‘sluggish, inactive person’ twice. The literal sense of ódæsinn is ‘not out of breath, unwearied’ (cf. dæsa(sk) ‘groan, lose one’s breath from exhaustion’, p. p. dæstr ‘exhausted’).

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framm ‘forth’

fram (adv.): out, forth, forwards, away

[2] framm: frá Tóm

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varð ‘arose’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[3] varð: virð Tóm

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of ‘around’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[3] of: und 61

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hilmi ‘the ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

kennings

hilmi Hǫrða,
‘the ruler of the Hǫrðar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

the ruler of the Hǫrðar, → NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús
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Hǫrða ‘of the Hǫrðar’

Hǫrðar (noun m.): the Hǫrðar

[3] Hǫrða: ‘hordan’ 61

kennings

hilmi Hǫrða,
‘the ruler of the Hǫrðar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

the ruler of the Hǫrðar, → NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús
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hjǫr ‘a sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword < hjǫrdynr (noun m.): [a sword-clash]

[4] hjǫrdynr: ‘hiordvnr’ Bb, ‘hiorðine’ FskBˣ, hjǫrdyn H, Hr, hrædýr Flat

kennings

hjǫrdynr
‘a sword-clash ’
   = BATTLE

a sword-clash → BATTLE
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dynr ‘clash’

dynr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ir): din < hjǫrdynr (noun m.): [a sword-clash]

[4] hjǫrdynr: ‘hiordvnr’ Bb, ‘hiorðine’ FskBˣ, hjǫrdyn H, Hr, hrædýr Flat

kennings

hjǫrdynr
‘a sword-clash ’
   = BATTLE

a sword-clash → BATTLE
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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[4] ok: so F, Holm2, 972ˣ, 325VI, 321ˣ, 325V, 61, Bb, Tóm, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, H, Hr, Flat, en Kˣ, er E, J2ˣ

notes

[4] ok ‘and’: En ‘and/but’ in the main ms. and 39 also gives excellent sense, but ok has by far the stronger ms. support.

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þás ‘as’

þás (conj.): when

[5] þás (‘þa er’): þar er E, J2ˣ, Holm2, þat er 325VI, 321ˣ, þá 325V

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en ‘and’

2. en (conj.): but, and

[5] en: er Bb

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skipti ‘allotted’

skipta (verb): share, divide, exchange

[5] skipti: skeptir 61, Tóm, skepti Flat

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skap ‘the shaping’

1. skap (noun n.; °-s; *-): mind, fate < skapvǫrðr (noun m.)

kennings

skapvǫrðr himins
‘the shaping guardian of heaven ’
   = God

the shaping guardian of heaven → God

notes

[6] skapvǫrðr himins ‘the shaping guardian of heaven [= God]’: Skapvǫrðr is a hap. leg. in which skap- could have the active sense ‘creating, shaping, fashioning’ emphasised here, or the passive ‘natural, fated’ as in the adjectives skapligr ‘natural, suitable’ and skapdauði ‘fated to die’.

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vǫrðr ‘guardian’

vǫrðr (noun m.; °varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu): guardian, defender < skapvǫrðr (noun m.)

[6] ‑vǫrðr: vǫrð 61

kennings

skapvǫrðr himins
‘the shaping guardian of heaven ’
   = God

the shaping guardian of heaven → God

notes

[6] skapvǫrðr himins ‘the shaping guardian of heaven [= God]’: Skapvǫrðr is a hap. leg. in which skap- could have the active sense ‘creating, shaping, fashioning’ emphasised here, or the passive ‘natural, fated’ as in the adjectives skapligr ‘natural, suitable’ and skapdauði ‘fated to die’.

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himins ‘of heaven’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

[6] himins: ‘himis’ 325V

kennings

skapvǫrðr himins
‘the shaping guardian of heaven ’
   = God

the shaping guardian of heaven → God

notes

[6] skapvǫrðr himins ‘the shaping guardian of heaven [= God]’: Skapvǫrðr is a hap. leg. in which skap- could have the active sense ‘creating, shaping, fashioning’ emphasised here, or the passive ‘natural, fated’ as in the adjectives skapligr ‘natural, suitable’ and skapdauði ‘fated to die’.

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Hel ‘Hel’

1. hel (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju): death, Hel, hell

[7] Hel klauf hausa fǫlva: om. 61

notes

[7] Hel: The axe Hel had, according to Snorri, been owned by Magnús’s father Óláfr (MgóðHkr ch. 28, ÍF 28, 43). Theodoricus, in his Historia (MHN 49) also reports that Magnús wielded his father’s axe (not there named) two-handed at Lyrskovshede (Hlýrskógsheiðr), and that it was shattered in the battle but is partly preserved in the cathedral at Trondheim (Niðaróss). Hel was the goddess of death and her realm in pre-Christian mythology, and by juxtaposing the name with himins ‘heaven’s’ and jǫrðu ‘earth’ (both l. 6) the skald seems to encourage these associations.

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klauf ‘clove’

kljúfa (verb): cleave

[7] Hel klauf hausa fǫlva: om. 61;    klauf: ‘klaup’ 321ˣ

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hausa ‘skulls’

hauss (noun m.; °hauss, dat. hausi/haus; hausar): skull

[7] Hel klauf hausa fǫlva: om. 61

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fǫlva ‘pallid’

fǫlr (adj.; °fǫlvan): pale

[7] Hel klauf hausa fǫlva: om. 61

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tvær ‘both’

tveir (num. cardinal): two

[8] tvær: tveim 325V, tveimr 61, Tóm

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jǫfurr ‘the prince’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

[8] jǫfurr spendi: so 39, F, E, J2ˣ, Holm2, 972ˣ, 325VI, 321ˣ, 325V, 61, Bb, FskBˣ, H, Hr, Flat, jǫfurs spendu Kˣ, jǫfur spendar Tóm

notes

[8] jǫfurr spendi ‘the prince clenched’: This has much the stronger ms. authority, but ’s hendr tvær jǫfurs spendu (of skapt) ‘the prince’s two hands clenched (round the shaft)’ gives equally good sense, and is printed in Skj B, but must be secondary.

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spendi ‘clenched’

spenja (verb): entice

[8] jǫfurr spendi: so 39, F, E, J2ˣ, Holm2, 972ˣ, 325VI, 321ˣ, 325V, 61, Bb, FskBˣ, H, Hr, Flat, jǫfurs spendu Kˣ, jǫfur spendar Tóm

notes

[8] jǫfurr spendi ‘the prince clenched’: This has much the stronger ms. authority, but ’s hendr tvær jǫfurs spendu (of skapt) ‘the prince’s two hands clenched (round the shaft)’ gives equally good sense, and is printed in Skj B, but must be secondary.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Hkr, ÓH and H-Hr, the st. is quoted near the beginning of the account of the battle of Lyrskovshede (Hlýrskógsheiðr). After receiving heartening portents, Magnús casts off his byrnie and rushes into the attack. In Flat, st. 10 is the first of three sts by Arnórr which are quoted at the end of the brief account of the battle; it has the same summary role in Fsk.

This battle is also commemorated in st. 11 below, ÞjóðA Magnfl 6-7, Arn Hryn 13 and Þfagr Sveinn 1.

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