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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Hardr 12II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Haraldsdrápa 12’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 273-4.

Arnórr jarlaskáld ÞórðarsonHaraldsdrápa
111213

‘’

kennings

stríðir ormalátrs
‘the foe of the reptiles’ lair ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr

the reptiles’ lair → GOLD
the foe of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr
Close

‘’

kennings

stríðir ormalátrs
‘the foe of the reptiles’ lair ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr

the reptiles’ lair → GOLD
the foe of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr
Close

Olli ‘caused’

valda (verb): cause

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ofrausn ‘The excess of heroism’

ofrausn (noun f.): excess of heroism

notes

[1] ofrausn ‘excess of heroism’: Or lit. ‘over-magnificence’. Like the near-synonym ofermōd, lit. ‘over-courage’ in the OE Battle of Maldon (l. 89), this word introduces the rare possibility that heroic excess is being criticised. While rausn implies magnificent deeds and hospitality (cf. Arn Magndr 19/4, Arn Þorfdr 2/3, 6/7), the ofrausn which here causes Haraldr’s death seems to have a near-pejorative sense, as also in Sigv Berv 11/3 and Sturl Hákkv 9/9 (see also Note to Halli XI Fl 4/7 and see Fritzner for prose examples). It could refer generally to his reckless zeal or more specifically to his presumption in marching from the ships without armour, his decision to tackle the superior Engl. host (as suggested by the Context to the st. in H-Hr) or his overweening ambition in invading England: cf. Þjóðólfr’s comment (ÞjóðA Lv 11/4) that it was þarflaust ‘needlessly’ that Haraldr called up troops for the expedition westwards. See also Note to Þfagr Sveinn 6/6.

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stillis ‘in the ruler’

stillir (noun m.): ruler

[1] stillis: stillir Hr

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orma ‘of the reptiles’ ’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

kennings

stríðir ormalátrs
‘the foe of the reptiles’ lair ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr

the reptiles’ lair → GOLD
the foe of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr
Close

orma ‘of the reptiles’ ’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

kennings

stríðir ormalátrs
‘the foe of the reptiles’ lair ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr

the reptiles’ lair → GOLD
the foe of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr
Close

látrs ‘lair’

látr (noun n.; °; dat. -um): lair < ormalátr (noun n.): [reptiles’ lair]

kennings

stríðir ormalátrs
‘the foe of the reptiles’ lair ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr

the reptiles’ lair → GOLD
the foe of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr
Close

látrs ‘lair’

látr (noun n.; °; dat. -um): lair < ormalátr (noun n.): [reptiles’ lair]

kennings

stríðir ormalátrs
‘the foe of the reptiles’ lair ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr

the reptiles’ lair → GOLD
the foe of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr
Close

þats ‘that’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[2] þats (‘þat er’): er Flat, þar er Hr

notes

[2] þats ‘that’: (a) The Mork, H reading þat has been emended by previous eds (beginning with Sveinbjörn Egilsson, SHI 6, 387 n.) to dat. sg. því, since dat. would normally be required by olli, 3rd pers. sg. pret. of valda ‘cause’ (l. 1). However, if því were the object of olli, it would be stressed, not cliticized with es and in an unstressed position. (b) Þats is therefore retained in the present edn, and taken as a conj. functioning like at ‘that’ (a usage found elsewhere, e.g. Ill Har 1/1); the Flat reading er would have a similar function. Olli ‘caused’ is assumed to have a suppressed object ‘this’. Alternatively, the þats-cl. could be taken as its object, albeit acc. rather than dat., or olli could be read as intransitive, with the sense ‘prevailed, determined the outcome’ (see LP: valda for examples).

Close

máttit ‘could not’

mega (verb): may, might

[2] máttit: mttuð Flat, ‘mattið’ H, Hr

Close

stáls ‘of steel’

1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow

kennings

strǫngu éli stáls,
‘the stern blizzard of steel, ’
   = BATTLE

the stern blizzard of steel, → BATTLE
Close

strǫngu ‘the stern’

strangr (adj.): strong

kennings

strǫngu éli stáls,
‘the stern blizzard of steel, ’
   = BATTLE

the stern blizzard of steel, → BATTLE
Close

éli ‘blizzard’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

kennings

strǫngu éli stáls,
‘the stern blizzard of steel, ’
   = BATTLE

the stern blizzard of steel, → BATTLE
Close

stríðir ‘the foe’

stríðir (noun m.): opponent, fighter

kennings

stríðir ormalátrs
‘the foe of the reptiles’ lair ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr

the reptiles’ lair → GOLD
the foe of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Haraldr
Close

aldrigi ‘never’

aldrigi (adv.): never

Close

aldins ‘of the old’

2. aldinn (adj.): old

kennings

lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs Varðrúnar,
‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún ’
   = WARRIOR

the old, untamed steed of Varðrún → WOLF
the stainer of the claws of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[6, 7, 8] lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs varðrúnar ‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún <troll-woman> [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: Viggs is a slight and well-justified emendation. Ms. ‘vigs’, presumably vígs ‘of battle’, would not make sense, and would provide a less exact consonantal rhyme with glygg-. Varðrún occurs only here and among the heiti for ‘troll-woman’ in Þul Trǫllkvenna 5/3III.

Close

aldins ‘of the old’

2. aldinn (adj.): old

kennings

lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs Varðrúnar,
‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún ’
   = WARRIOR

the old, untamed steed of Varðrún → WOLF
the stainer of the claws of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[6, 7, 8] lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs varðrúnar ‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún <troll-woman> [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: Viggs is a slight and well-justified emendation. Ms. ‘vigs’, presumably vígs ‘of battle’, would not make sense, and would provide a less exact consonantal rhyme with glygg-. Varðrún occurs only here and among the heiti for ‘troll-woman’ in Þul Trǫllkvenna 5/3III.

Close

ótams ‘untamed’

ótamr (adj.): [untamed]

kennings

lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs Varðrúnar,
‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún ’
   = WARRIOR

the old, untamed steed of Varðrún → WOLF
the stainer of the claws of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[6, 7, 8] lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs varðrúnar ‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún <troll-woman> [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: Viggs is a slight and well-justified emendation. Ms. ‘vigs’, presumably vígs ‘of battle’, would not make sense, and would provide a less exact consonantal rhyme with glygg-. Varðrún occurs only here and among the heiti for ‘troll-woman’ in Þul Trǫllkvenna 5/3III.

Close

ótams ‘untamed’

ótamr (adj.): [untamed]

kennings

lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs Varðrúnar,
‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún ’
   = WARRIOR

the old, untamed steed of Varðrún → WOLF
the stainer of the claws of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[6, 7, 8] lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs varðrúnar ‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún <troll-woman> [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: Viggs is a slight and well-justified emendation. Ms. ‘vigs’, presumably vígs ‘of battle’, would not make sense, and would provide a less exact consonantal rhyme with glygg-. Varðrún occurs only here and among the heiti for ‘troll-woman’ in Þul Trǫllkvenna 5/3III.

Close

lituðr ‘the stainer’

lituðr (noun m.): colourer

[6] lituðr: ‘vítudr’ Flat, ‘b(ru)dr’(?) Hr

kennings

lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs Varðrúnar,
‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún ’
   = WARRIOR

the old, untamed steed of Varðrún → WOLF
the stainer of the claws of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[6, 7, 8] lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs varðrúnar ‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún <troll-woman> [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: Viggs is a slight and well-justified emendation. Ms. ‘vigs’, presumably vígs ‘of battle’, would not make sense, and would provide a less exact consonantal rhyme with glygg-. Varðrún occurs only here and among the heiti for ‘troll-woman’ in Þul Trǫllkvenna 5/3III.

Close

hramma ‘of the claws’

hrammr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): claws

kennings

lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs Varðrúnar,
‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún ’
   = WARRIOR

the old, untamed steed of Varðrún → WOLF
the stainer of the claws of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[6, 7, 8] lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs varðrúnar ‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún <troll-woman> [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: Viggs is a slight and well-justified emendation. Ms. ‘vigs’, presumably vígs ‘of battle’, would not make sense, and would provide a less exact consonantal rhyme with glygg-. Varðrún occurs only here and among the heiti for ‘troll-woman’ in Þul Trǫllkvenna 5/3III.

Close

viggs ‘steed’

viggr (noun m.): horse

[7] viggs: ‘vigs’ all

kennings

lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs Varðrúnar,
‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún ’
   = WARRIOR

the old, untamed steed of Varðrún → WOLF
the stainer of the claws of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[6, 7, 8] lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs varðrúnar ‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún <troll-woman> [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: Viggs is a slight and well-justified emendation. Ms. ‘vigs’, presumably vígs ‘of battle’, would not make sense, and would provide a less exact consonantal rhyme with glygg-. Varðrún occurs only here and among the heiti for ‘troll-woman’ in Þul Trǫllkvenna 5/3III.

Close

viggs ‘steed’

viggr (noun m.): horse

[7] viggs: ‘vigs’ all

kennings

lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs Varðrúnar,
‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún ’
   = WARRIOR

the old, untamed steed of Varðrún → WOLF
the stainer of the claws of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[6, 7, 8] lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs varðrúnar ‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún <troll-woman> [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: Viggs is a slight and well-justified emendation. Ms. ‘vigs’, presumably vígs ‘of battle’, would not make sense, and would provide a less exact consonantal rhyme with glygg-. Varðrún occurs only here and among the heiti for ‘troll-woman’ in Þul Trǫllkvenna 5/3III.

Close

vápna ‘of weapons’

vápn (noun n.; °-s; -): weapon

kennings

glyggvi vápna.
‘the wind-storm of weapons.’
   = BATTLE

the wind-storm of weapons. → BATTLE
Close

glyggvi ‘the wind-storm’

gluggr (noun m.): storm

[7] glyggvi: ‘gleyse’ Flat

kennings

glyggvi vápna.
‘the wind-storm of weapons.’
   = BATTLE

the wind-storm of weapons. → BATTLE
Close

Varðrúnar ‘of Varðrún’

Varðrún (noun f.): Varðrún

kennings

lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs Varðrúnar,
‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún ’
   = WARRIOR

the old, untamed steed of Varðrún → WOLF
the stainer of the claws of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[6, 7, 8] lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs varðrúnar ‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún <troll-woman> [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: Viggs is a slight and well-justified emendation. Ms. ‘vigs’, presumably vígs ‘of battle’, would not make sense, and would provide a less exact consonantal rhyme with glygg-. Varðrún occurs only here and among the heiti for ‘troll-woman’ in Þul Trǫllkvenna 5/3III.

Close

Varðrúnar ‘of Varðrún’

Varðrún (noun f.): Varðrún

kennings

lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs Varðrúnar,
‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún ’
   = WARRIOR

the old, untamed steed of Varðrún → WOLF
the stainer of the claws of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[6, 7, 8] lituðr hramma aldins, ótams viggs varðrúnar ‘the stainer of the claws of the old, untamed steed of Varðrún <troll-woman> [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: Viggs is a slight and well-justified emendation. Ms. ‘vigs’, presumably vígs ‘of battle’, would not make sense, and would provide a less exact consonantal rhyme with glygg-. Varðrún occurs only here and among the heiti for ‘troll-woman’ in Þul Trǫllkvenna 5/3III.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Mork and Flat, st. 12 is quoted immediately after st. 10. In H-Hr, an interlude separates sts 10 and 12, in which the Engl. king Harold Godwineson (Haraldr Guðinason) comes to Tostig (Tósti), his own brother but Haraldr Sigurðarson’s ally, with a peace offer that is rejected. The saga reports the common opinion that Tostig’s proposal to return to the ships when confronted by the enemy had been the best. The compiler adds that the Norw. king’s excessive zeal (ofrkapp)—his refusal to act with caution lest it should be construed as cowardice—led to disaster, and the st. is cited to confirm this.

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