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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þorm Lv 25I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þormóðr Kolbrúnarskáld, Lausavísur 25’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 843.

Þormóðr KolbrúnarskáldLausavísur
24x25

Undrask ‘wonders’

undra (verb): be surprised, amazed

[1] Undrask: undrar DG8

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ǫglis ‘of the hawk’

ǫglir (noun m.): hawk

[1] ǫglis: ‘æglis’ 325VII, DG8, ‘eyglis’ Kˣ

kennings

Eik landa ǫglis
‘The oak of the lands of the hawk ’
   = WOMAN

the lands of the hawk → ARMS
The oak of ARMS → WOMAN
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ǫglis ‘of the hawk’

ǫglir (noun m.): hawk

[1] ǫglis: ‘æglis’ 325VII, DG8, ‘eyglis’ Kˣ

kennings

Eik landa ǫglis
‘The oak of the lands of the hawk ’
   = WOMAN

the lands of the hawk → ARMS
The oak of ARMS → WOMAN
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landa ‘of the lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

[1] landa: kindar DG8

kennings

Eik landa ǫglis
‘The oak of the lands of the hawk ’
   = WOMAN

the lands of the hawk → ARMS
The oak of ARMS → WOMAN
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landa ‘of the lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

[1] landa: kindar DG8

kennings

Eik landa ǫglis
‘The oak of the lands of the hawk ’
   = WOMAN

the lands of the hawk → ARMS
The oak of ARMS → WOMAN
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eik ‘The oak’

eik (noun f.; °eikr/eikar; eikr): oak

kennings

Eik landa ǫglis
‘The oak of the lands of the hawk ’
   = WOMAN

the lands of the hawk → ARMS
The oak of ARMS → WOMAN
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hví ‘why’

hví (adv.): why

[2] hví: at J2ˣ, 73aˣ, 325V, 325VII, Bb, DG8, 142ˣ, 566aˣ, ‘hv[…]’ 61, þvít Tóm, papp4ˣ

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vér ‘we’

vér (pron.; °gen. vár, dat./acc. oss): we, us, our

[2] vér róm: vér sém J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 73aˣ, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, DG8, 142ˣ, 566aˣ, papp4ˣ, 761bˣmarg

notes

[2] vér róm ‘we are [I am]’: On this syncopated form of vér erum, see ANG §158 Anm. 2.

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róm ‘are’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[2] vér róm: vér sém J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 73aˣ, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, DG8, 142ˣ, 566aˣ, papp4ˣ, 761bˣmarg

notes

[2] vér róm ‘we are [I am]’: On this syncopated form of vér erum, see ANG §158 Anm. 2.

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bleikir ‘pale’

2. bleikr (adj.): pale

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fagr ‘handsome’

fagr (adj.; °fagran; compar. fegri, superl. fegrstr): fair, beautiful

[3] fagr: so 972ˣ, J2ˣ, 73aˣ, Holm4, 61, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, Kˣ, DG8, 142ˣ, 566aˣ, papp4ˣ, 761bˣmarg, ‘fadr’ Holm2

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fannk ‘I met’

2. finna (verb): find, meet

[4] fannk (‘fann ec’): ‘fann el’ 321ˣ

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ǫrva ‘of arrows’

ǫr (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; ǫrvar/ǫrar): arrow

[4] ǫrva: ‘aufa’ 321ˣ

kennings

drif ǫrva,
‘a blizzard of arrows, ’
   = BATTLE

a blizzard of arrows, → BATTLE
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drif ‘a blizzard’

drif (noun n.): blizzard, driven snow

kennings

drif ǫrva,
‘a blizzard of arrows, ’
   = BATTLE

a blizzard of arrows, → BATTLE
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svanni ‘lady’

svanni (noun m.): lady, woman

notes

[4] svanni ‘lady’: Finnur Jónsson (1932-3) rightly observes that the vocative form could belong to either the second or the third clause.

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fló ‘flew’

fljúga (verb): fly

[5] fló: flaug DG8

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malmr ‘metal’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal

[5] malmr inn: ‘malrínn’ Tóm

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inn ‘The’

2. inn (art.): the

[5] malmr inn: ‘malrínn’ Tóm

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døkkvi ‘dark’

døkkr (adj.; °-van; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr): dark

[5] døkkvi: ‘deykcvi’ Holm2, kløkkvi Kˣ

notes

[5] døkkvi ‘dark’: The reading kløkkvi ‘malleable’ of (alone) is not likely to be correct, and may be a result of misreading <d> as <cl>. At all events, the contrast of døkkvi with bleikir ‘pale’ makes for a superior reading.

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magni ‘with might’

magn (noun n.; °-s): strength

[6] magni: megni 972ˣ, 73aˣ, ‘magin’ 321ˣ

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keyrðr ‘driven’

keyra (verb): drive, whip, fling

[6] keyrðr: ‘ke[…]rðr’ 61, ‘kǫrðr’ Kˣ

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gǫgnum ‘through’

gegnum (prep.): through

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hvasst ‘sharply’

hvass (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): keen, sharp

[7] hvasst: ‘huazt’ 73aˣ

notes

[7] hvasst ‘sharply’: Ulset (1975, 93) takes this as an adj. qualifying jarn ‘iron’, while noting the possibility of an adv.

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beit ‘bit’

bíta (verb; °bítr; beit, bitu; bitinn): bite

[7] beit: beitt Bb, Tóm

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hjarta ‘to the heart’

hjarta (noun n.; °-; *-u): heart

[7] hjarta it: ‘híarta :t’ Holm4, hjartat 61, Flat, Tóm, DG8, papp4ˣ

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it ‘’

2. inn (art.): the

[7] hjarta it: ‘híarta :t’ Holm4, hjartat 61, Flat, Tóm, DG8, papp4ˣ

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hættligt ‘the dangerous’

hættligr (adj.): [dangerous]

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járn ‘iron’

járn (noun n.; °-s; -): iron, weapon

[8] járn: so J2ˣ, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, Kˣ, DG8, 142ˣ, papp4ˣ, 761bˣmarg, om. Holm2, ‘j[…]’ 61, sár 566aˣ

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es ‘’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[8] es (‘er’): om. Tóm

notes

[8] es vættik ‘I expect’: Lit. ‘as I expect’. Gaertner (1907, 348) suggests that the meaning may be ‘I hope’, given that Þormóðr did not want to outlive Óláfr.

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vættik ‘I expect’

vætta (verb): expect

[8] vættik (‘ec vætti’): ek mætti 972ˣ, ek veitti Holm4, ek ætla Flat, ek vænti DG8, eg vætta papp4ˣ

notes

[8] es vættik ‘I expect’: Lit. ‘as I expect’. Gaertner (1907, 348) suggests that the meaning may be ‘I hope’, given that Þormóðr did not want to outlive Óláfr.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In ÓH, excluding Flat, and Hkr, a woman tending wounds asks Þormóðr why he is so pale. In Flat, he asserts that he is hardly injured, and a woman offering milk asks why he is so pale if he is largely unscathed. In ÓHLeg, a woman bearing wood throws down her burden when she sees Þormóðr and declares that the dead walk. He denies being dead, and we are told that he has a spot on his nose. In Fbr, a woman in charge of water for the wounded asks why he is so pale and whether he is not in some difficulty. In Fbr and ÓHLeg (as well as in Flat), this stanza precedes Lv 24; in ÓH it follows. (See the discussion in the Introduction.) In ÓHLeg, ÓH and Hkr Þormóðr dies soon after delivering this stanza.

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