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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Vitn 12VII

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Vitnisvísur af Máríu 12’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 748.

Anonymous PoemsVitnisvísur af Máríu
111213

rjóðr ‘The red-faced’

3. rjóðr (adj.): red

notes

[2] rjóðr ‘red-faced’: Lit. ‘red, ruddy’. This adj. must refer to the fact that he was red-faced with anger or shame (see NN §1676).

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fljóði ‘the woman’

fljóð (noun n.): woman

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Legg ‘Cease’

leggja (verb): put, lay

notes

[3, 4] legg þú niðr ... lygð ‘cease ... the lie’: Both Skj B and Skald silently emend to leggr þú niðr lit. ‘you lay down the lie’ (i.e. ‘you lie’). However, the verb-adv. collocation leggja niðr is not attested in that sense; rather, it means ‘to cease, quit, bring to an end’ (see Fritzner: leggja niðr, esp. leggja niðr 5-6.).

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þú ‘’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

notes

[3, 4] legg þú niðr ... lygð ‘cease ... the lie’: Both Skj B and Skald silently emend to leggr þú niðr lit. ‘you lay down the lie’ (i.e. ‘you lie’). However, the verb-adv. collocation leggja niðr is not attested in that sense; rather, it means ‘to cease, quit, bring to an end’ (see Fritzner: leggja niðr, esp. leggja niðr 5-6.).

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niðr ‘’

3. niðr (adv.): down

notes

[3, 4] legg þú niðr ... lygð ‘cease ... the lie’: Both Skj B and Skald silently emend to leggr þú niðr lit. ‘you lay down the lie’ (i.e. ‘you lie’). However, the verb-adv. collocation leggja niðr is not attested in that sense; rather, it means ‘to cease, quit, bring to an end’ (see Fritzner: leggja niðr, esp. leggja niðr 5-6.).

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in ‘’

2. inn (art.): the

notes

[3] in leiða ‘loathsome one’: Wrightson treats the def. art. in ‘the’ as the adv. enn ‘again’ and construes leiða (taken as an adj., f. acc. sg.) ‘loathsome’ with lygð (f. acc. sg.) ‘lie’. That is less convincing, because we would not expect a (usually) stressed adv. in a dip.

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leiða ‘loathsome one’

2. leiðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): hateful, loathsome

notes

[3] in leiða ‘loathsome one’: Wrightson treats the def. art. in ‘the’ as the adv. enn ‘again’ and construes leiða (taken as an adj., f. acc. sg.) ‘loathsome’ with lygð (f. acc. sg.) ‘lie’. That is less convincing, because we would not expect a (usually) stressed adv. in a dip.

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lygð ‘the lie’

lygð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): lie

notes

[3, 4] legg þú niðr ... lygð ‘cease ... the lie’: Both Skj B and Skald silently emend to leggr þú niðr lit. ‘you lay down the lie’ (i.e. ‘you lie’). However, the verb-adv. collocation leggja niðr is not attested in that sense; rather, it means ‘to cease, quit, bring to an end’ (see Fritzner: leggja niðr, esp. leggja niðr 5-6.).

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brims ‘of the ocean’

brim (noun n.): surf

[5] brims: blóms 713, 721

kennings

ríka brík bríma brims,
‘a rich plank of the fire of the ocean, ’
   = WOMAN

the fire of the ocean, → GOLD
a rich plank of the GOLD → WOMAN

notes

[5, 6] brík bríma brims ‘plank of the fire of the ocean [GOLD > WOMAN]’: The ms. reading blóms ‘of the flower’ (brík blóms bríma ‘plank of the flower of fire’; so Wrightson) makes no sense as a determinant in a kenning for ‘woman’ and has been emended in accordance with Sperber, Skj B and Skald.

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brims ‘of the ocean’

brim (noun n.): surf

[5] brims: blóms 713, 721

kennings

ríka brík bríma brims,
‘a rich plank of the fire of the ocean, ’
   = WOMAN

the fire of the ocean, → GOLD
a rich plank of the GOLD → WOMAN

notes

[5, 6] brík bríma brims ‘plank of the fire of the ocean [GOLD > WOMAN]’: The ms. reading blóms ‘of the flower’ (brík blóms bríma ‘plank of the flower of fire’; so Wrightson) makes no sense as a determinant in a kenning for ‘woman’ and has been emended in accordance with Sperber, Skj B and Skald.

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bríma ‘of the fire’

brími (noun m.): fire

kennings

ríka brík bríma brims,
‘a rich plank of the fire of the ocean, ’
   = WOMAN

the fire of the ocean, → GOLD
a rich plank of the GOLD → WOMAN

notes

[5, 6] brík bríma brims ‘plank of the fire of the ocean [GOLD > WOMAN]’: The ms. reading blóms ‘of the flower’ (brík blóms bríma ‘plank of the flower of fire’; so Wrightson) makes no sense as a determinant in a kenning for ‘woman’ and has been emended in accordance with Sperber, Skj B and Skald.

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bríma ‘of the fire’

brími (noun m.): fire

kennings

ríka brík bríma brims,
‘a rich plank of the fire of the ocean, ’
   = WOMAN

the fire of the ocean, → GOLD
a rich plank of the GOLD → WOMAN

notes

[5, 6] brík bríma brims ‘plank of the fire of the ocean [GOLD > WOMAN]’: The ms. reading blóms ‘of the flower’ (brík blóms bríma ‘plank of the flower of fire’; so Wrightson) makes no sense as a determinant in a kenning for ‘woman’ and has been emended in accordance with Sperber, Skj B and Skald.

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brík ‘plank’

brík (noun f.; °-ar; -r): plank

kennings

ríka brík bríma brims,
‘a rich plank of the fire of the ocean, ’
   = WOMAN

the fire of the ocean, → GOLD
a rich plank of the GOLD → WOMAN

notes

[5, 6] brík bríma brims ‘plank of the fire of the ocean [GOLD > WOMAN]’: The ms. reading blóms ‘of the flower’ (brík blóms bríma ‘plank of the flower of fire’; so Wrightson) makes no sense as a determinant in a kenning for ‘woman’ and has been emended in accordance with Sperber, Skj B and Skald.

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fastna ‘be engaged to’

fastna (verb): [be engaged to]

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ríka ‘a rich’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich

kennings

ríka brík bríma brims,
‘a rich plank of the fire of the ocean, ’
   = WOMAN

the fire of the ocean, → GOLD
a rich plank of the GOLD → WOMAN
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fielausa ‘a penniless’

félauss (adj.; °·lausan): [a penniless]

kennings

fielausa faldreið
‘a penniless headdress-chariot ’
   = WOMAN

a penniless headdress-chariot → WOMAN
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fald ‘headdress’

faldr (noun m.; °; -ar): headdress < faldreið (noun f.)

[8] faldreið: so 721, fald 713

kennings

fielausa faldreið
‘a penniless headdress-chariot ’
   = WOMAN

a penniless headdress-chariot → WOMAN
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reið ‘chariot’

1. reið (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar): riding; chariot < faldreið (noun f.)

[8] faldreið: so 721, fald 713

kennings

fielausa faldreið
‘a penniless headdress-chariot ’
   = WOMAN

a penniless headdress-chariot → WOMAN
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skal ‘shall’

skulu (verb): shall, should, must

[8] skal eg: so 721, skal eg þig 713

notes

[8] skal eg aldri ‘I shall never’: The 713 reading, skal eg þig aldri [fýsaz] ‘I shall never (desire) you’, is possible, but the pron. þig ‘you’ must have been inserted in 713 to provide the missing syllable (fald ‘head-dress’ rather than faldreið ‘headdress-chariot’; so 721).

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eg ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

[8] skal eg: so 721, skal eg þig 713

notes

[8] skal eg aldri ‘I shall never’: The 713 reading, skal eg þig aldri [fýsaz] ‘I shall never (desire) you’, is possible, but the pron. þig ‘you’ must have been inserted in 713 to provide the missing syllable (fald ‘head-dress’ rather than faldreið ‘headdress-chariot’; so 721).

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aldri ‘never’

aldri (adv.): never

notes

[8] skal eg aldri ‘I shall never’: The 713 reading, skal eg þig aldri [fýsaz] ‘I shall never (desire) you’, is possible, but the pron. þig ‘you’ must have been inserted in 713 to provide the missing syllable (fald ‘head-dress’ rather than faldreið ‘headdress-chariot’; so 721).

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