allvalds ‘the mighty ruler’: Probably King Sveinn tjúguskegg ‘Fork-beard’ (d. 1014), who held part of Norway after the battle of Svǫlðr (c. 1000; so also ÍF 26). This is suggested by the statement in ll. 3-4 of a perceived duty to defend Norway, by the fact that the second helmingr is concerned with King Sveinn, and perhaps by the use of the word allvaldr itself. However, this remains uncertain, especially since the sources differ as to which helmingar constitute the stanza. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) suggested a reference to Eiríkr jarl, on his departure from Norway.