Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to ESk Geisl 6VII

[7] hauldum ‘noble farmers, men’: Both mss give the Norw. form of the word hǫlðr, which is necessary to maintain skothending. According to Noreen the change o/au before l + consonant did not occur in Iceland until around 1300 (cf. ANG §105 and Anm.). The syntax of the helmingr is good, making the possibility of scribal tampering unlikely. Einarr may have chosen the form to avoid aðalhending in an odd-numbered l. In 4/6 he uses the forms hǫlða (ms. ‘holda’) and meginfjǫlði (ms. ‘meginfioldi’) ‘multitude’ to form an aðalhending.


  1. Bibliography
  2. ANG = Noreen, Adolf. 1923. Altnordische Grammatik I: Altisländische und altnorwegische Grammatik (Laut- und Flexionslehre) unter Berücksichtigung des Urnordischen. 4th edn. Halle: Niemeyer. 1st edn. 1884. 5th unrev. edn. 1970. Tübingen: Niemeyer.


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