Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to Eyv Lv 8I

[1, 2] Ullr ímunlauks ‘Ullr <god> of the battle-leek [SWORD > WARRIOR]’: The addressee of this vocative remains unidentified (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 26) but could conceivably be one of the ‘friends’ (vinum, Lv 13/8) who assist Eyvindr during this period of hardship. The repeated mention of the god Ullr here and in Lv 9/3 seems deliberate, but its significance is difficult to pin down. Although Ullr must have been a major deity, his story is poorly documented in SnE and other medieval texts. Attestations of his name in the toponymic material are confined to Mälaren in Sweden and Viken in Norway (Brink 2007a, 116). It is therefore possible that Eyvindr alludes to him as a favourite god of the people of Viken who were opposed to Haraldr gráfeldr (see Note to Lv 7/2).


  1. Bibliography
  2. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  3. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  4. Brink, Stefan. 2007a. ‘How Uniform Was the Old Norse Religion?’. In Quinn et al. 2007, 105-36.
  5. Internal references
  6. Edith Marold 2017, ‘Snorra Edda (Prologue, Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál)’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].


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