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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Vol. II. Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: from c. 1035 to c. 1300 8. Introduction 5. Biographies 1. Royal Biographies 1. Kings of Norway n. Óláfr III kyrri Haraldsson (r. 1067-93)

n. Óláfr III kyrri Haraldsson (r. 1067-93)

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Óláfr III kyrri Haraldsson (r. 1067-93)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].

Sagas: HSig, MH, Ólkyrr (Ágr, Flat, Fsk, H-Hr, Hkr, Mork, Theodoricus).

Óláfr was the son of Haraldr harðráði and his concubine, Þóra Þorbergsdóttir (see Genealogy II.2.f in ÍF 28). He accompanied his father, Haraldr, on the expedition to England in 1066, and returned to Norway via Orkney after the battle of Stamford Bridge. He ruled Norway jointly with his brother, Magnús, until Magnús’s death on 28 April 1069. Óláfr’s long reign was peaceful, which earned him his nickname kyrri ‘the Quiet’. He died of illness on 22 or 23 September 1093. See Theodoricus (MHN 57-9; McDougall and McDougall 1998, 46-7), Ágr (ÍF 29, 39-41; Ágr 1995, 58-61), Mork (Mork 1928-32, 267-70, 281-96; Andersson and Gade 2000, 265-7, 274-85), Fsk (ÍF 29, 278-9, 290-1, 296-302; Finlay 2004, 221-3, 231-2, 237-41), Hkr (ÍF 28, 179-81, 194, 197-8, 201-9; Hollander 1991, 649-50, 658-60, 664-7), H-Hr (Fms 6, 406-9, 424, 427-8, 431-48), Flat (Flat 1860-8, III, 390-1, 397-9). See also Knýtl (ÍF 35, 158-9, 163-6; Hermann Pálsson and Edwards 1986, 66, 69-71), Orkn (ÍF 34, 86-7, 89, 339-40; Hermann Pálsson and Edwards 1987, 77-9).

Events documented in poetry: The battle of Fulford, England, on 20 September 1066 (Arn Hardr 7-9; Steinn Óldr 1-3; Anon Harst) and Óláfr’s return to Norway after the battle of Stamford Bridge (Steinn Óldr 4-5); his sovereignty of Norway and his defence of the country against the incursions of the Danish king Sveinn Úlfsson (Steinn Óldr 6-11; Anon (Ólkyrr) 1); his peaceful reign and generosity (Steinn Óldr 12-16); a curious anecdote about Óláfr and a clairvoyant Norwegian farmer (Anon (Ólkyrr) 2). See also Anon Nkt 40-2.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  3. Andersson, Theodore M. and Kari Ellen Gade, trans. 2000. Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030-1157). Islandica 51. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  4. Edwards, Paul. 1986. ‘Alcohol into Art: Drink and Poetry in Old Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon’. In Simek et al. 1986, 85-97.
  5. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  6. MHN = Storm, Gustav, ed. 1880. Monumenta historica Norvegiæ: Latinske kildeskrifter til Norges historie i middelalderen. Kristiania (Oslo): Brøgger. Rpt. 1973. Oslo: Aas & Wahl.
  7. Mork 1928-32 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1928-32. Morkinskinna. SUGNL 53. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  8. Finlay, Alison, trans. 2004. Fagrskinna: A Catalogue of the Kings of Norway. Leiden: Brill.
  9. Hollander, Lee M. 1991 = Hollander, Lee M. 1964a.
  10. McDougall, David and Ian McDougall, trans. 1998. Theodoricus monachus. Historia de antiquitate regum norwagiensium: An Account of the Ancient History of the Norwegian Kings. Viking Society for Northern Research Text Series 11. University College, London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  11. Theodoricus = Theodrici monachi historia de antiquitate regum Norwagiensium. In MHN 1-68.
  12. Internal references
  13. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  14. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Flateyjarbók (Flat)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxi-clxii.
  15. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Orkneyinga saga (Orkn)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  16. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  17. 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Ragnars saga loðbrókar’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 616.
  18. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Hulda and Hrokkinskinna (H-Hr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  19. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Morkinskinna (Mork)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  20. Not published: do not cite (HSigII)
  21. Not published: do not cite (MHII)
  22. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Anonymous Poems, Nóregs konungatal 40’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 787.
  23. Matthew Townend 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Haraldsstikki’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 807-8.
  24. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Haraldsdrápa 7’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 268.
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