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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Vol. II. Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: from c. 1035 to c. 1300 8. Introduction 5. Biographies 1. Royal Biographies 1. Kings of Norway f. Haraldr IV gilli(-kristr) Magnússon (r. 1130-6)

f. Haraldr IV gilli(-kristr) Magnússon (r. 1130-6)

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Haraldr IV gilli(-kristr) Magnússon (r. 1130-6)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].

Sagas: Msona, MbHg (Ágr, Fsk, H-Hr, Hkr, Mork).

Haraldr gilli(-kristr) ‘Servant (of Christ)’ Magnússon was the son of Magnús berfœttr and an unnamed Irish woman (see Genealogies II.3 and II.4 in ÍF 28). He arrived in Norway from the Hebrides during the reign of Sigurðr jórsalafari. When Sigurðr died in 1130, Haraldr assumed the royal title along with his nephew, Magnús inn blindi Sigurðarson. In 1135 he captured Magnús in Bergen and maimed him, forcing him to take refuge in the monastery on Munkholmen, Trondheim. Haraldr then ruled Norway alone for almost two years until he was killed by his half-brother, Sigurðr slembidjákn (Slembir), and Sigurðr’s men in Bergen on 13 December 1136. See Anon Nkt 53-5, Ágr (ÍF 29, 50-1; Ágr 1995, 74-7), Mork (Mork 1928-32, 391-2, 395-8, 400-14; Andersson and Gade 2000, 352-3, 355-67, 370-2), Fsk (ÍF 29, 320-30; Finlay 2004, 257-65), Hkr (ÍF 28, 265-71, 278-88, 298-302; Hollander 1991, 707-11, 715-24, 732-35), H-Hr (Fms 7, 163-71, 175-86, 196-8, 200-4). See also Knýtl (ÍF 35, 264-5; Hermann Pálsson and Edwards 1986, 141), Orkn (ÍF 34, 130-1, 140-2, 149, 158; Hermann Pálsson and Edwards 1987, 109, 116-18, 123, 129-30).

Events documented in poetry: The battle of Färlev, in present-day Sweden, against Magnús inn blindi on 9 August 1134 and Haraldr’s subsequent exile to Denmark (Hskv Hardr 1-2; Ingimarr Lv; ESk Hardr II, 1); his return to Norway the same autumn and his execution of Magnús’s supporters in Sarpsborg (Hskv Hardr 3); the siege of Bergen December 1134-January 1135 (Hskv Hardr 4; ESk Hardr II, 2); Haraldr’s sole sovereignty in Norway in 1135 (Hskv Hardr 5; ESk Hardr II, 3); two unknown battles near the islands Ven and Læsø in Denmark (ESk Hardr I; ESk Hardr II, 4-5).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  3. Andersson, Theodore M. and Kari Ellen Gade, trans. 2000. Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030-1157). Islandica 51. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  4. Edwards, Paul. 1986. ‘Alcohol into Art: Drink and Poetry in Old Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon’. In Simek et al. 1986, 85-97.
  5. Mork 1928-32 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1928-32. Morkinskinna. SUGNL 53. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  6. Finlay, Alison, trans. 2004. Fagrskinna: A Catalogue of the Kings of Norway. Leiden: Brill.
  7. Hollander, Lee M. 1991 = Hollander, Lee M. 1964a.
  8. Internal references
  9. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  10. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Orkneyinga saga (Orkn)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  11. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  12. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Hulda and Hrokkinskinna (H-Hr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  13. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Morkinskinna (Mork)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  14. Not published: do not cite (MbHgII)
  15. Not published: do not cite (MErlII)
  16. Not published: do not cite (MsonaII)
  17. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Anonymous Poems, Nóregs konungatal 53’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 794.
  18. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Einarr Skúlason, Haraldsdrápa I’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 542-4.
  19. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Einarr Skúlason, Haraldsdrápa II’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 544-8.
  20. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Ingimarr af Aski Sveinsson, Lausavísa’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 497-8.
  21. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Halldórr skvaldri, Haraldsdrápa 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 493.
  22. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Halldórr skvaldri, Haraldsdrápa 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 494-5.
  23. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Halldórr skvaldri, Haraldsdrápa 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 495-6.
  24. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Halldórr skvaldri, Haraldsdrápa 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 496.
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