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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to stanza

2. Anonymous Lausavísur, 9. Lausavísur from Sverris saga, 2 [Vol. 2, 843-4]

[All]: This st. is unusual in that, even though we do not know who composed it, we know the identity of the person who recited it (so also Anon (Sv) 3 and 6 below). Sverrir uses this particular st. as a prelude to a stirring speech, packed with proverbs and verbal references to eddic and skaldic poetry, that reports the ensuing conversation between the father and the son (ÍF 30, 72-3): Svá sagði einn búandi er hann fylgði syni sínum til herskipa ok réð honum ráð, bað hann vera hraustan ok harðan í mannraunum, ‘ok lifa orð lengst eftir hvern,’ sagði hann. ‘Eða hvernig myndir þú hátta ef þú kœmir í orrostu, ok vissir þú þat áðr at þar skyldir þú falla?’ Hann svarar: ‘Hvat væri þá við at sparask at hǫggva á tvær hendr?’ Karl mælti: ‘Nú kynni nǫkkurr maðr þat at segja þér með sannleik at þú skyldir eigi þar falla?’ Hann svarar: ‘Hvat væri þá at hlífask við at ganga fram sem bezt?’ Karl mælti: ‘Í hverri orrostu sem þú ert staddr þá mun vera annathvárt at þú mun falla eða braut komask, ok ver þú fyrir því djarfr, því at allt er áðr skapat. Ekki kømr ófeigum í hel ok ekki má feigum forða. Í flótta er fall verst.’ ‘So a farmer said when he accompanied his son down to the warships and gave him advice, and told him to be brave and fierce in hardship, “and fame lives the longest after every man,” he said. “But how would you behave if you were in battle and you knew in advance that you would fall there?” He answers: “What would then prevent one from striking blows on both sides?” The old man said: “Now, someone would be able to tell you in truth that you would not fall there.” He answers: “What would then hold one back from advancing as best you can?” The old man said: “In every battle you are in it will happen that you either fall or get away. And for that reason you must be brave, because everything is ordained in advance. Nothing brings death to those not so destined, and nothing can save those destined to die. The worst is to fall in flight.”’ This particular part of Sverrir’s speech is repeated almost verbatim by his grandson, King Hákon Hákonarson, prior to the battle of Oslo against Duke Skúli Bárðarson on 21 April 1240 (see Hák, E 1916, 601).


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