This interface will soon cease to be publicly available. Use the new interface instead. Click here to switch over now.

Cookies on our website

We use cookies on this website, mainly to provide a secure browsing experience but also to collect statistics on how the website is used. You can find out more about the cookies we set, the information we store and how we use it on the cookies page.

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

login: password: stay logged in: help

kenning referents

(list alphabetically)
§1 earth, landEARTH, GIANT-LANDS, GROUND, ICELAND, ISLAND, LAND, SHINGLE, SHORE, WORLD
§2 grassGRASS, WOOD/GRASS
§3 rock, stoneCRAG, JEWEL, JEWELS, ROCK, STONE, STONES
§4 caveCAVE
§5 seaMAELSTROM, OCEAN, SEA, SEA PATH, VOYAGE
§5 [2] fjordFJORDS
§6 waveBREAKER, SEA-SPRAY, SURF, WAVE, WAVES
§7 sea-weedSEAWEED
§8 waterRIVER, RIVERS, RIVERS/LAKES, WATER
§9 iceICE
§10 fire, flameFIRE
§11 storm, windWIND, WINDS
§12 rainRAIN
§13 hailHAIL
§14 sunSUN
§15 moonMOON
§16 heavenly bodyHEAVENLY BODIES
§17 skySKY
§18 heaven (Christian)HEAVEN, SKIES/HEAVENS, SKY/HEAVEN
§19 hell (Christian)HELL
§20 airAIR
§21 winterSUMMER, WINTER, WINTERS
§22 springSPRING
§23 day and nightNIGHT
§25 bearBEAR
§26 foxFOX
§27 goatGOAT
§28 sheepRAM, SHEEP
§29 horseHORSE, HORSES
§30 bull, oxBULL, OX
§31 dogDOG
§32 catCAT, MOUSE
§33 flyFLY
§34 duckDUCK
§35 falcon, hawkHAWK
§36 serpent, snakeSEA-SERPENT, SERPENT, SERPENTS, SNAKE, SNAKES
§37 fishFISH, HERRINGS
§38 whaleWHALE
§39 sea-snailSEA-SNAILS
§41 ravenRAVEN, RAVENS
§42 eagleEAGLE, EAGLES
§42.1 raven/eagleBIRD OF PREY, RAVEN/EAGLE, RAVENS/EAGLES
§43 wolfSHE-WOLF, WOLF, WOLF/WOLVES, WOLVES
§44 body parts (human)BODY
§45 headHEAD, HEADS
§46 brainBRAIN
§47 hairHAIR
§48 earEAR, EARS
§49 eyeEYE, EYES
§50 browsEYEBROWS
§51 eyelashEYELASHES
§52 tears, weepingCROCODILE TEARS, TEARS
§53 foreheadFACE, FOREHEAD
§54 nose, nostrilNOSE
§55 beardBEARD
§56 mouthMOUTH
§57 jawboneJAWBONE
§58 beakBEAK
§59 tooth, teethTEETH, TOOTH
§60 tongueTONGUE
§61 vomitSPIT
§62 breast, chestBREAST, BREASTS, CHEST, CHESTS
§63 heartHEART
§64 mind, thoughtCOURAGE, MIND, THOUGHT
§65 shoulderBACKBONE, BELLY, NECK, SHOULDER, SHOULDERS
§66 arm, handARM, ARM/HAND, ARMS, ARMS/HANDS, FINGER, HAND, HANDS
§67 footFOOT
§68 toesTOES
§69 claw, talonCLAW, CLAWS, PAWS, TALON, TALONS
§70 tailTAIL
§71 wingWING, WINGS
§72 hornANTLERS, HORN, HORNS
§73 weaponMISSILES, WAR-GEAR, WEAPON, WEAPONS
§74 arrow, spearARROW, ARROW/SPEAR, ARROWS, SPEAR, SPEAR-BLADES, SPEARS
§75 axeAXE, AXE-BLADE, AXE-HEAD, AXES, BATTLE-AXE
§76 swordAXE/SWORD, BLADE, SWORD, SWORD BLADE, SWORD BLADES, SWORD/SHIELD, SWORD/SPEAR, SWORDS
§77 armourARMOUR
§78 helmetHEADGUARD, HELMET, HELMET OF TERROR, HELMETS
§79 mail-coatBYRNIE, BYRNIES, MAIL-COAT, MAIL-COATS, MAIL-SHIRT, MAIL-SHIRTS
§80 shieldSHIELD, SHIELD-FACE, SHIELD-RIM, SHIELD-RIMS, SHIELDS
§81 battleBATTLE, BATTLE NOISE, BATTLES
§82 woundCHEST WOUNDS, WOUND, WOUNDS
§83 corpse, slainCARRION, CORPSE, CORPSES, DEAD MAN, GHOST
§84 bloodBLOOD
§85 ship, boatBOAT, BOATS, SHIP, SHIPS, WARSHIPS
§86 ship accessoriesAFTER-DECK, ANCHOR, OAR, OARS, RUDDER, SAIL, TILLER
§87 goldGOLD, PIECE OF GOLD, PRECIOUS METAL, SILVER
§88 male, manADVERSARY AT LAW, AUTHORITARIAN MAN, BELLIGERENT MAN, BOWMEN, CAPTAIN, CRIMINAL, DANISH KING, DWARF, DWARFS, EVIL MAN, FARMER, FRATRICIDE, GENEROUS MAN, GENEROUS MEN, GIANT, GIANT/DWARF, GIANTS, HEATHEN, HEATHEN MAN, HEATHENS, HONOURABLE MAN, HOUSEHOLDER, INJURED MAN, LEARNED MAN, MAN, MAN/WARRIOR, MEN, POWERFUL MAN, RICH MAN, SEA-KING, SEA-WARRIOR, SEAFARER, SEAFARERS, TROLL, TROLLS, UNCOUTH EATER, WARRIOR, WARRIORS, WEALTHY MAN
§89 male descendantDESCENDANT, DESCENDANTS, LOVER, SON, SONS
§90 king, leader, lord, rulerBAD KING, ENGLISH KING, GENEROUS RULER, GENEROUS RULERS, JARL, JUST RULER, KING, KINGS, LEADER, NOBLEMAN, NORWEGIAN KING, NORWEGIAN RULER, RULER, RULERS, STERN RULER, SWEDISH RULER, TREASURE GUARDIAN, UNJUST RULER
§91 poetPOET, POETS, SKALD
§92 mankind, peopleBEGGAR, CONTEMPTIBLE MAN, CONTEMPTIBLE MEN, CRUEL MAN, FISHERMAN, HUMANKIND, HUMANS, JUDGE, MANKIND, OLD MAN, PEOPLE, POOR MAN, RETAINER, RETAINERS, SHEPHERD, SMITH, TANNER, TORMENTOR, WICKED MEN
§93 GodANGEL, ANGELS, CHRIST, DEITY, GOD, GODS, ÆSIR
§94 holy man, saintAPOSTLE, APOSTLES, BISHOP, CARDINAL, CHRISTIAN PEOPLE, CLERIC, CLERICS, HOLY MAN, HOLY MEN, MARTYR, MISSIONARY, NEGLIGENT PRIEST, PRIEST, SAINT, SAINTS, THE BLESSED, THE CHURCH, VIRTUOUS MAN, VIRTUOUS RULER
§95 devilDEVIL, DEVILS, THE DEVIL
§96 female, womanBELLIGERENT WOMAN, GIANTESS, GIANTESSES, NORN, TROLL-WIFE, TROLL-WOMAN, TROLL-WOMEN, VALKYRIE, VALKYRIES, WOMAN, WOMEN
§97 holy womanFEMALE SAINT, HOLY VIRGINS, HOLY WOMAN, HOLY WOMEN
§100 poetryBAD POETRY, DRÁPA, MEAD OF POETRY, MEAD OF POETRY/POETRY, POEM, POEMS, POETIC CORPUS, POETRY, PRAISE POEM
§101 houseHEARTH, HEARTH STONE, HOUSE, PILLAR, WINDOW
§102 crossBELL, CHURCH, CHURCHES, CROSS
§103 alcoholic drinkALE, BEER, DRINK, MEAD, WINE, WINE/ALE
§104 sausageSAUSAGE, SAUSAGES
§105.01 cloakCLOAK
§105.02 headbandHEADBAND, HEADBANDS
§105.03 headdressHEADDRESS
§105.04 shoeSHOE, SHOE/FOOT, SHOES
§105.05 soleSOLE
§105.06 fishing-lineFISHING LINE
§105.07 fishhookFISHHOOK
§105.08 bierBIER
§105.09 cup, vesselCUP, DRINKING HORN, DRINKING HORNS
§105.10 bellowsBELLOWS
§105.11 gameboardGAMEBOARD
§105.12 ironIRON
§105.13 pigmentPIGMENT
§105.14 gallowsGALLOWS
§105.15 grain, seedGRAIN
§105.16 poisonPOISON
§105.17 graveGRAVE
§105.18 cairn, gravemoundGRAVEMOUND
§105.19 pitchforkPITCHFORK
§105.20 combCOMB
§105.21 cauldron, kettleKETTLE
§105.22 scraperSCRAPER
§105.23 lancetLANCET
§105.24 leatherLEATHER
§105.25 millMILL
§105.26 rope, strap, thongTHONG
§105.27 sceptreSCEPTRE
§105.28 grindstoneGRINDSTONE
§105.29 whetstoneWHETSTONE
§105.30 sickleSICKLE
§105.31 pole, prop, rod, stickSTICK
§105.32 reinsREINS
§105.33 old ageOLD AGE
§105.34 beautyBEAUTY
§105.35 hopeHOPE
§105.36 beatingBEATING
§105.37 speech, utteranceSPEECH
§105.38 abuseABUSE
§105.39 painPAIN
§105.40 joyJOY
§105.41 evil-doing, sin, viceSIN, SINS
§105.42 illnessFEVER, ILLNESS
§105.43 satietySATIETY
§105.44 quarrel, strifeSTRIFE
§105.45 grief, sorrowSORROW
§105.46 sleepSLEEP
§105.47 dreamDREAM
§106 deathDEATH
§x arm partsFINGERS
§x bedBED
§x bowBOW, BOWS, BOWSTRING, BOWSTRINGS
§x Christian peopleCHURCH LEADERS
§x cloudCLOUD
§x fire-woodFIRE-WOOD
§x flight, flyingFLIGHT
§x floor, groundFLOOR
§x mountainMOUNTAIN, MOUNTAINS, ZENITH
§x penisPENIS
§x prayerPRAYERS
§x ringARM-RING, ARM-RINGS, GOLD RINGS, RING, RINGS
§x scriptureHOLY WRITINGS, SCRIPTURES
§x tree (m.)TREE
[unclassified], ?, ABSCESS, ALE-DREGS, ARCHBISHOP, ARROWS/SPEARS, ÁSGARÐR, BACK, BATTLE-FIELDS, BATTLEFIELD, BODIES, BONE, BONES, BOWL, BROOCH, BUTTOCKS, CARGO, CATTLE, CAULDRON, CHARIOTEER, CHEEKS, CHIEFTAINS, CLIFF, COAST, COLOUR, COWARDLY WARRIOR, CULT HOUSE, EGG, ENGLAND, EXECUTIONER, EYELID, FAME, FEEDER, FEET, FIELD, FIGHTER, FLYING LAVA, FOOD, FORD, FOREST, GAME BIRD, GENEROUS, GLADDENER, GLUTTON, GOLD HEADDRESS, GOLD-RING, HAT, HAY, HEARING, HEARTS, HEATH, HEATHEN GOD, HEATHEN TEMPLE, HELPER, HJAÐNINGAR, HOLY SACRAMENT, HOLY SEPULCHRE, HOLY SPIRIT, HUNGER, HUNTSMAN, ICELANDER, ICELANDERS, IDOLS, INSULTS, JEW, JUTLAND, KILLER, LATIN, LEATHER STRAP, LIFE, LIFESPAN, LIGHTNING, LIMBS, LOOM, LOVE, LOVERS, MEAD OF POETRY/POEM, MEN/WARRIORS, MIRACLES, MISER, NIGGARDLINESS, NOOSE, NORWAY, NORWEGIANS, OAR BLADES, ORGANS OF SPEECH, OX SKULL, OX TEETH, PARADISE, PATRILINE, PEACE, PIECE OF IRON, PIOUS MAN, PRINCE, PRINCES, PRIVY HOLE, PROPHET, RIDGE, ROCKS, SAND, SERIOUS ILLNESS, SERVANT, SERVANTS, SHEATH, SHIELD-WALL, SHIELD-WALLS, SKERRY, SKULL, SKULLS, SOIL, SONGS, SORCERESS, SOUL, SOULS, SOW, STANDARD, STORM, SUNDAY, SWIMMER, SWORD BLOW, SWORD SHEATHS, SWORD-POINT, SWORD-SHEATH, THE ENGLISH, TORTURE-WHEEL, TRINITY, TRØNDELAG, UNIVERSE, UPPHAF, VAT, VITALS, VIXEN, VOLCANIC ERUPTION, VOMIT, WAGON, WARP, WIDOW, WINE-VESSEL, WOLF-SKIN, WOMB, YNGLING, ÞÓRR
© Skaldic Project Academic Body, unless otherwise noted. Database structure and interface developed by Tarrin Wills. All users of material on this database are reminded that its content may be either subject to copyright restrictions or is the property of the custodians of linked databases that have given permission for members of the skaldic project to use their material for research purposes. Those users who have been given access to as yet unpublished material are further reminded that they may not use, publish or otherwise manipulate such material except with the express permission of the individual editor of the material in question and the General Editor of the volume in which the material is to be published. Applications for permission to use such material should be made in the first instance to the General Editor of the volume in question. All information that appears in the published volumes has been thoroughly reviewed. If you believe some information here is incorrect please contact Tarrin Wills with full details.

This is a backup server for skaldic.abdn.ac.uk. Any changes made here will be lost.