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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Lil 11VII l. 3

af — from


af (prep.): from



[3] af lopti næsta ‘from the nearest air’: This may be a reference to the lowest heaven, the heaven nearest the earth. Following biblical tradition (cf. 2 Cor. XII.2) the ON Eluc posits three heavens: Þrir ero himnar. einn licamlegr sa es ver megom sia. Annarr andlegr. þar es andlegar scepnor bvggua þat ero englar. Enn þriþe es scilningar himinn þar es heilog þenning bvggver. oc helger englar mego þar sia Goþ ‘There are three heavens: first a physical heaven which we can see; the second heaven is spiritual, where the spiritual beings called angels live; and the third is the heaven of understanding, where the Holy Trinity lives and where the holy angels can see God’ (Eluc 1992, 4-5). Cf. þriðja himni ‘third heaven’ 40/2. The alternative ms. reading, lopti hæsta ‘the highest heaven’ is meaningless in this context (see Schottmann 1973, 194-5 n. 10).



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