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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Vol. I. Poetry for Scandinavian Rulers 1: From Mythological Times to c. 1035
 

 
1. Eiríkr blóðøx Haraldsson (r. c. 929-34)
2. Eiríkr jarl Hákonarson (r. c. 1000-c. 1014)
3. Hákon I inn góði Haraldsson (r. c. 934-c. 961)
4. Hákon jarl Eiríksson (r. c. 1014-c. 1015)
5. Hákon jarl Sigurðarson (r. c. 970-c. 995)
6. Hálfdan svarti Guðrøðarson (c. 820-c. 860)
7. Haraldr II gráfeldr Eiríksson (r. c. 961-c. 970) and the Eiríkssynir
8. Haraldr I hárfagri Hálfdanarson (r. c. 860-c. 932)
9. Óláfr II inn helgi Haraldsson (r. c. 1015-1030)
10. Óláfr I Tryggvason (r. c. 995-c. 1000)
11. Rǫgnvaldr heiðumhæri Óláfsson (later ninth century)
12. Sveinn Alfífuson (r. 1030-1035)
13. Sveinn jarl Hákonarson (r. c. 1000-c. 1015)

(Vol. I. Poetry for Scandinavian Rulers 1: From Mythological Times to c. 1035 > 8. Volume Introduction > 4. Biographies > 4.1. Ruler biographies > 4.1.a. Kings and jarls of Norway > 2. Eiríkr jarl Hákonarson (r. c. 1000-c. 1014))

2. Eiríkr jarl Hákonarson (r. c. 1000-c. 1014)

Eiríkr shared with his father Hákon jarl Sigurðarson (q. v.) in the Norwegian victory against the Jómsvíkingar at Hjǫrungavágr (Liavågen), c. 985, and was one of the three allies who defeated Óláfr Tryggvason (q. v.) at the battle of Svǫlðr c. 1000. He then took over the rule of Norway together with his half-brother Sveinn Hákonarson (q. v.), and as a vassal of the Danish king Sveinn tjúguskegg (q. v.), whose daughter Gyða he married. The jarls ruled together, with a relatively light touch and with religious tolerance (Andersson 1977, 107-8), until Eiríkr was summoned to England c. 1014 to fight in the army of his brother-in-law Knútr inn ríki Sveinsson (q. v.). He was a jarl in Northumbria until at least 1023. His son Hákon Eiríksson (q. v.) and half-brother Sveinn were left to hold Norway, but eventually lost control to Óláfr Haraldsson (q. v.). See Anon Nkt 21-4II (c. 1190); Theodoricus (MHN 23-5; McDougall and McDougall 1998, 18-19, 21); HN (MHN 115, 118; Kunin and Phelpstead 2001, 21-2); Ágr (ÍF 29, 24; Ágr 2008, 34-5); Fsk (ÍF 29, 380 (index); Finlay 2004, 322 (index); ÓTHkr (ÍF 26, 377 (index); Hollander 1964a, 176-85, 221-4); ÓHHkr (ÍF 27, 30-2; Hollander 1964a, 259-62). Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 257, 266, 280-1) names Eiríkr’s skalds as Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld (Hfr), Gunnlaugr ormstunga (GunnlIV), Þórðr Kolbeinsson (ÞKolb) and Halldórr ókristni (Hókr); ms. 761ax alone adds Eyjólfr dáðaskáld (Edáð) and Skúli Þorsteinsson (Skúli), who are assigned in U to Sveinn jarl Hákonarson, and Þórðr Særeksson (ÞSjár); U alone adds Hrafn Ǫnundarson (HrafnǪV).

Events documented in poetry: Early victory over Tíðenda-Skopti (Edáð Banddr 1-2); Eiríkr stays in Denmark and is granted rule over Norwegian territory (Edáð Banddr 3); the battle of Hjǫrungavágr (Liavågen) c. 985 (ÞKolb Eirdr 1-5); the death of Hákon jarl, arrival of Óláfr Tryggvason in Norway and departure of Eiríkr to the Swedish court (ÞKolb Eirdr 6, 7); Eiríkr’s actions against the Gotar (Edáð Banddr 4), vikings off Staurr (Staver, Edáð Banddr 5), Aldeigja (Staraya Ladoga, Edáð Banddr 6), Danes in the Baltic (Edáð Banddr 7) and Gautar (Edáð Banddr 8); battle of Svǫlðr c. 1000 (Hókr Eirfl; ÞKolb Eirdr 8); consequences of the battle (ÞKolb Eirdr 9-10); Eiríkr joins Knútr in England on the death of Sveinn tjúguskegg c. 1014 (ÞKolb Eirdr 10-13); his campaign in England: attack by Eiríkr and Úlfkell on London (ÞKolb Eirdr 14); battle at Hringmaraheiði (Ringmere Heath, ÞKolb Eirdr 15); other action in England (ÞKolb Eirdr 16); military exploits in general (Edáð Banddr 9; ÞKolb Eirdr 17); kinship by marriage with Knútr (ÞKolb Eirdr 12); a poem offered to Eiríkr (Hfr EirdrV (Hallfr 31)). See also poetry about Hákon jarl Sigurðarson and Óláfr Tryggvason.

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