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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjóðólfr ór Hvini (Þjóð)

9th century; volume 1; ed. Edith Marold;

1. Ynglingatal (Yt) - 37

Skj info: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski, Norsk skjald, 9 årh. (AI, 7-21, BI, 7-19).

Skj poems:
1. Ynglingatal
2. Haustlǫng
3. Et digt om Harald hårfagre, næppe ægte
4. Lausavísur

Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, or inn hvinverski, ‘from Hvinir’ (Þjóð) was a Norwegian skald of the late ninth or early tenth century. As his nickname indicates, he was from Hvinir (Kvinesdal, Vest-Agder). His biography is largely unknown. Skáldatal names him as poet to several rulers and powerful men: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’ and Rǫgnvaldr heiðumhár or heiðumhæri ‘High with Honours’ (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 273), Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson (ibid., 256, 265, 280), Þorleifr inn spaki ‘the Wise’ (ibid., 259, 268, 285), Strút-Haraldr jarl (ibid., 259, 284) and an unknown Sveinn jarl (ibid., 268). However, the associations with Hákon, Strút-Haraldr and Þorleifr are uncertain since they may have lived later in the tenth century; see Bugge (1894, 145, 175); Åkerlund (1939, 7). In Hkr, both within the Prologue (ÍF 26, 4) and in HHárf (ÍF 26, 127-8, 139), Þjóðólfr is represented as skald and friend to Haraldr hárfagri and as a dedicated foster-father to Haraldr’s son Guðrøðr ljómi ‘Beam of Light’. It is in this context that he speaks the two lausavísur associated with him (Þjóð Lv 1-2). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini is the composer of the poems Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) and Haustlǫng (Þjóð HaustlIII, edited in SkP III). Five stanzas of a poem dedicated to Haraldr hárfagri (Þjóð Har) are also attributed to him. Several stanzas of Haraldskvæði (Þhorn Harkv) are falsely attributed to Þjóðólfr; see Introduction to Harkv. Finally, a fragment (Þjóðólfr FragIII) edited in SkP III is likely to be the work of a different Þjóðólfr, though it is tentatively associated with Þjóð Yt in Skj; see Introduction to Yt.

Ynglingatal — Þjóð YtI

Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 3.

 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27 

for reference only:  8x   11x   13x   14x   15x   16x   17x   20x   25x   26x 

Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski: 1. Ynglingatal (AI, 7-15, BI, 7-14); stanzas (if different): 9 | 10 | 11 | 12-13 | 13 | 14 | 15-16 | 16 | 17-18 | 18 | 19-20 | 20 | 21-22 | 22 | 23-24 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27-28 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33-34 | 34 | 35-36 | 36 | 37 | 38(?)

SkP info: I, 52

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

24 — Þjóð Yt 24I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance


Cite as: Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 24’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 52.

Ok til þings
þriðja jǫfri
Hveðrungs mær
ór heimi bauð,
þás Halfdanr,
sás Holtum bjó,
norna dóms
of notit hafði.
Ok buðlung
á Borrói
síðan fôlu.

Ok {mær Hveðrungs} bauð þriðja jǫfri ór heimi til þings, þás Halfdanr, sás bjó Holtum, hafði of notit dóms norna. Ok sigrhafendr fôlu buðlung síðan á Borrói.

And {the maiden of Hveðrungr <= Loki>} [= Hel] invited a third ruler out of the world to a meeting when Hálfdan, who lived in Holtan, had used up the allotment of the norns. And afterwards the victorious ones buried the ruler in Borre.

Mss: (42r), papp18ˣ(10v), 521ˣ(52-53), F(7ra-b), J1ˣ(20v), J2ˣ(23v-24r), R685ˣ(22r) (Hkr); 761aˣ(62v)

Readings: [2] jǫfri: ‘iofi’ R685ˣ    [5] Halfdanr: Halfdan all    [6] Holtum: so J2ˣ, R685ˣ, á Holti Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, 761aˣ, í Holti F, ‘hokum’ J1ˣ    [9] buðlung: buðlungs F    [10] Borrói: ‘boru’ F, ‘borror’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, R685ˣ    [11] ‑hafendr: ‑hafendi papp18ˣ    [12] fôlu: sálu papp18ˣ

Editions: Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski, 1. Ynglingatal 32: AI, 14, BI, 13, Skald I, 8-9, FF §53; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 80, IV, 24-5, ÍF 26, 79, Hkr 1991, I, 46 (Yng ch. 47), F 1871, 31; Yng 1912, 51, 68-9, Yng 2000, 66-7; Yt 1914, 16, Yt 1925, 208-9, 249-50.

Context: Hálfdan, son of Eysteinn, bore the nicknames inn mildi ‘the Generous’ and inn matarilli ‘the Food-stingy’ because, while he rewarded his men richly with gold coins, he was mean with food. His primary seat was Holtar in Vestfold, where, after a life as a great warrior, he died of illness. He is buried in Borró (Borre).

Notes: [1] til þings ‘to a meeting’: Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Yng 1912; Yt 1925) assumes the meeting is of an erotic nature (cf. Sundqvist 2005a, 111; Bergsveinn Birgisson 2008, 349). Though this is difficult to prove, it gains credibility because Yt 7/4 refers to Hel taking pleasure in a deceased prince (see Note). — [2] þriðja jǫfri ‘a third ruler’: Þriðja ‘third’ could imply the third in an uninterrupted line of rulers received by Hel (Hkr 1893-1901, IV); or the third in a line of rulers who died of illness (ÍF 26); or the third of the Norwegian Ynglingar (Yng 1912; Yt 1925). The last interpretation seems most likely. — [3] mær Hveðrungs ‘the maiden of Hveðrungr <= Loki> [= Hel]’: Since Hel is among Loki’s offspring (see Note to st. 7/5-6), the kenning mær Hveðrungs ‘the maiden of Hveðrungr [= Hel]’ indicates that Hveðrungr must be a designation for Loki, cf. also Vsp 55/5 (NK 13) mǫgr Hveðrungs ‘kinsman of Hveðrungr [= Fenrir]’. Hveðrungr has been interpreted as ‘the stone-dweller’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Yt 1925) or ‘the roarer’ (Falk 1924, 19; AEW: hveðra). — [6] Holtum ‘in Holtan’: The reading of J2ˣ and R685ˣ (Holtum) is to be preferred over those of (á Holti) and F (í Holti) for metrical reasons, and is adopted in all eds except Skald and Hkr 1991, which prefer . Here the dat. is used as a locative (Konráð Gíslason 1881, 243; Yt 1925). It has usually been assumed that Holtar refers to Holtan in Borre, which lies 2-3 kilometres north of the Borre burial field. This is most likely, because according to the stanza, Hálfdan was buried in Borre (cf. Skre 2007c, 463-4). Other possibilities are Holtan in Sandefjord, not far from Huseby and Gokstad, or Holtan in Larvik (Myhre 1992b, 39). — [7-8] hafði of notit dóms norna ‘had used up the allotment of the norns’: The expression is equivalent to njóta aldrs ‘to enjoy a lifetime, live out one’s span of life’ (LP: njóta 1). For the notion that the norns determine the length of a human’s life cf. Hamð 30, HHund I 2/2-4, Kommentar IV, 172-4 and Notes to Yt 17/2-3, TorfE Lv 4/2. — [10] á Borrói ‘in Borre’: Borre, in Horten, Vestfold, is situated on Oslofjorden and is the site of the largest known collection of monumental burial mounds in Scandinavia. There are seven large earthen burial mounds, one large cairn and around thirty small cairns, dating to between 600 and the beginning of C10th. One of the large burial mounds, destroyed in 1852, contained a richly endowed ship burial from around the year 900 comparable with those of Gokstad and Oseberg (Myhre 1992a, 18‑23).

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