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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigvatr Þórðarson (Sigv)

11th century; volume 1; ed. Judith Jesch;

2. Nesjavísur (Nesv) - 15

Skj info: Sigvatr Þórðarson, Islandsk skjald, o. 995-o. 1045 (AI, 223-75, BI, 213-54).

Skj poems:
1. Víkingarvísur
2. Nesjavísur
3. Austrfararvísur
4. En drape om kong Olaf
5. Vestrfararvísur
6. Et kvad om Erlingr Skjalgsson
7. Flokkr om Erlingr Skjalgsson
8. Tryggvaflokkr
9. Et digt om dronning Astrid
10. Knútsdrápa
11. Bersǫglisvísur
12. Erfidrápa Óláfs helga
13. Lausavísur
14. Et par halvvers af ubestemmelige digte

Sigvatr or Sighvatr Þórðarson (Sigv) is said (ÍF 27, 54) to have been the son of Þórðr Sigvaldaskáld ‘Poet of Sigvaldi’, an Icelander who served, in succession, Sigvaldi jarl Strút-Haraldsson, leader of the Jómsvíkingar, his brother Þorkell inn hávi ‘the Tall’, who campaigned in England, and Óláfr Haraldsson, later king of Norway (r. c. 1015-30) and saint. Þórðr is listed as one of Sigvaldi’s skalds in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 259, 268), but none of his poetry survives. The family tradition of poetry can also be traced in Óttarr svarti ‘the Black’, said to have been Sigvatr’s sister’s son (ÍF 27, 144; ÓH 1941, I, 203). Sigvatr was brought up by a certain Þorkell, at Apavatn in south-west Iceland. When nearly fully grown he sailed to what is now Trondheim, where he met up with his father and joined King Óláfr’s retinue. According to Snorri (ÍF 27, 54-6; ÓH 1941, I, 81-3), Sigvatr recited Lv 2-3 at this time, and he interceded with the king on behalf of Icelandic merchants forced to pay a heavy tax in Norway (cf. Sigv Lv 4). It is also likely that this is when Þórðr provided Sigvatr with the material for Víkv (see Introduction to Sigv Víkv), which may be the poem referred to in the prose introduction to Sigv Lv 2 (Fidjestøl 1982, 118). There is no evidence that Sigvatr ever returned to Iceland, and according to the anecdote in which Sigv Lv 11 is preserved, he died on the island of Selja in north-western Norway and was buried at Kristskirkja (Kristkirken) in Trondheim. His poetry records his various journeys to Sweden, England and the Continent, as well as incidents in Norway. We know nothing of Sigvatr’s private life, except that he had a daughter called Tófa, who had King Óláfr himself as her godfather (Sigv Lv 19).

Sigvatr’s surviving poetic oeuvre is both large and remarkably diverse, encompassing different kinds of encomia not only on King Óláfr (Sigv Víkv, Sigv Nesv, Sigv Óldr, Sigv ErfÓl), but also on King Knútr of Denmark (Sigv Knútdr) and the Norwegian nobleman Erlingr Skjálgsson (Sigv Erl, Sigv Erlfl). Sigvatr was godfather to King Magnús inn góði ‘the Good’ Óláfsson and composed some avuncular words of advice to the boy-king (Sigv BervII). All of these patrons are recognised in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 252-4, 258, 260-2, 269), where Sigvatr is also credited with having composed for the Swedish king Ǫnundr Óláfsson (although no such poetry survives, cf. Sigv Knútdr 4/6) and the Norwegian chieftain Ívarr inn hvíti ‘the White’ (cf. Context to Sigv Lv 8). Sigvatr also composed a poem on the Norwegian pretender Tryggvi Óláfsson (Sigv Tryggfl) and is unique in having composed in dróttkvætt in praise of a woman, Óláfr Haraldsson’s widow Ástríðr Óláfsdóttir (Sigv Ást). Several of Sigvatr’s poems are more or less loosely connected sequences of stanzas rather than more formal compositions, and encompass both travelogue (Sigv Austv) and political commentary (Sigv Vestv, Sigv BervII). The latter genre is also well represented in his lausavísur, which also include some remarkably personal stanzas expressing his grief at the death of King Óláfr (Sigv Lv 22-4). Sigvatr’s status as a hǫfuðskáld ‘chief skald’ was recognised in the twelfth century (cf. Esk Geisl 12/8VII). His versatility as a poet has clearly inspired a number of anecdotes focusing on the composition of poetry, mostly of doubtful authenticity (cf. Contexts to Sigv Lv 1, 8, 11, 27; also Introduction to Ótt Hfl). Apart from two fragments preserved in SnE (Sigv Frag 1-2III), Sigvatr’s poetry is transmitted in a wide range of texts within the tradition of the kings’ sagas and is therefore edited in this volume or (in the case of the late Sigv Berv) in SkP II. For general studies of Sigvatr’s life and works, see Paasche (1917), Hollander (1940) and Petersen (1946).

Nesjavísur (‘Vísur about Nesjar’) — Sigv NesvI

Russell Poole 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Sigvatr Þórðarson, Nesjavísur’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 555.

 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15 

Skj: Sigvatr Þórðarson: 2. Nesjavísur, 1016 (AI, 228-32, BI, 217-20); stanzas (if different): 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 14

in texts: Flat, Fsk, Gramm, Hkr, ÓH, ÓHHkr, ÓHLeg, Skm, SnE, TGT

SkP info: I, 555

notes: ms. refs separated from first cards

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

-þegi (noun m.) ‘[heir, tainers]...’þegum 7/8

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 3/1, 11/5, 12/5

2afl (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘strength...’Afli 14/1

afla (verb) [°-að-] ‘to gain, earn, procure, acquire...’ — 14/1

Agðir (noun f.) ‘[as Agder, Agder]...’ — 3/4

all- ((prefix)) ‘very...’all 5/2, all 10/4

allr (adj.) ‘all...’ǫll 10/4, ǫll 14/8

allvel (adv.) ‘very well...’ — 13/3

2an (conj.) ‘than...’ — 6/2, 14/8

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 1/1, 1/8, 2/4, 2/5, 2/7, 5/5, 12/5

4at (conj.) ‘that...’ — 8/1, 11/1, 11/7, 14/5

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 4/2

1auðr (noun m.) [°-s/-ar, dat. -i/-] ‘wealth...’auð 10/4

3auðr (adj.) ‘empty, barren...’auð 9/2, autt 8/7

aurr (noun m.) ‘sand or gravel bank, ford...’aur 10/4

austan (adv.) ‘from the east...’ — 1/2, 3/3

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’a 9/1, 1/1, 2/3, 5/1, 7/4, 7/6, 8/4, 12/8

áðr (adv.) [°//] ‘before...’ — 10/3

1ár (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. u/-; -ar/-ir(LandslBorg 151b²¹)] ‘oar...’ôrum 1/7

2ár (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘year, year’s abundance...’ári 12/1

1árr (noun m.) [°dat. ár; ǽrir/árar, acc. áru] ‘messenger...’ôrr 11/2

báðir (pron.) [°gen. beggja (báðra), nom./acc. n. bǽði] ‘both...’ — 1/3

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’beri 7/8, bôrusk 1/8, bæri 7/8

2berja (verb) [°barði; barðr/bariðr/barinn] ‘fight...’bǫrðumsk 8/5, bǫrðusk 8/5

biðja (verb) [°biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)] ‘ask for, order, pray...’bað 10/1

binda (verb) [°bindr; batt/bant(cf. [$332$]), bundu; bundinn] ‘bind, tie...’bundu 2/8, bundusk 2/8

bíða (verb) [°bíðr; beið, biðu; beðit] ‘wait, suffer, experience...’beið 6/4, 15/2

bjóða (verb) [°býðr; bauð, buðu; boðinn (buð- Thom¹ 5²n.)] ‘offer, order, invite...’bauð 7/4, bauð 10/1

1blakkr (noun m.) ‘horse...’blakk 11/5, blakki 11/5, blakks 14/4

blár (adj.) ‘black...’blô 1/3

blóð (noun n.) [°-s] ‘blood...’ — 2/3, 9/7, blóðs 9/7

borð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘side, plank, board; table...’ — 1/4, 8/5

brak (noun n.) ‘clash, noise...’ — 8/2

brandr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sword, prow; fire...’branda 8/3, brandar 8/3

bráðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘quick(ly)...’bráð 9/7, brátt 9/7

brúðr (noun f.) [°brúðar, dat. & acc. brúði; brúðir] ‘woman, bride...’ — 12/5

brúk (noun n.) [°; dat. -um] ‘pile of seaweed...’bruk 8/2

1brynja (noun f.) [°-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur] ‘mailcoat...’brynjur 5/4

2búa (verb) [°býr (1. pers. býg NjM 330²⁴); bjó/bjuggi/bjǫggi/byggi, bjuggu/bjǫggu (præt. conj. byggi); búinn (n. sg. búit/bút)] ‘prepare, ready, live...’búin 8/6, búinn 8/6

búandi (noun m.) [°-a; búendr (bøendr var. ÓH 47¹²: AM 325 VII 4° “325 VII”), dat. búǫndum/búandum/búendum] ‘farmer, resident...’búendr 8/8

dragi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘°train of laden horses...’drǫgum 7/8

dreki (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘dragon, dragon-ship...’dreka 14/8

2drekka (verb) [°drekkr; drakk, drukku; drukkinn/drykkinn] ‘drink...’ — 14/8

drengr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja] ‘man, warrior...’drengir 8/6

drepa (verb) [°drepr; drap, drápu; drepinn] ‘kill, strike...’drápum 8/1

2drífa (verb) [°drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn] ‘drive, rush...’drifu 8/1, drifum 8/1

1drótt (noun f.) ‘troop...’ — 12/6, dróttir 12/6

dróttinsvik (noun n.) ‘betrayal of lord...’dróttinssvik 13/2

dynr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ir] ‘din...’ — 5/4, dyns 5/4

(conj.) ‘who, which...’ — 12/6

3ef (conj.) ‘if...’ — 12/7

efla (verb) [°-fld-/-að-(RómvUpph¹ 382²⁴)] ‘strengthen...’ — 14/1

1egg (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)] ‘edge, blade...’eggja 3/3

2eiga (verb) [°á/eigr (præs. pl. 3. pers. eigu/eiga); átti, áttu; átt] ‘own, have...’ôttu 4/7, ôttu 14/7

3eigi (adv.) ‘not...’ — 12/1, 14/8

2einn (pron.) [°decl. cf. einn num.] ‘one, alone...’ein 9/6

eir (noun f.) ‘mercy...’ — 2/6

ek (pron.) [°mín, dat. mér, acc. mik] ‘I, me...’ — 5/7

eldr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar] ‘fire...’elds 13/3

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 1/4, 2/7, 5/5, 6/5, 8/5, 9/6, 10/5, 15/2

4en (conj.) ‘than...’enn 8/1

2engi (pron.) ‘no, none...’ǫngvan 9/5, øngan 9/5

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’ — 2/7, 8/5, 9/6, 14/1, 14/8, es 6/6, þeims 1/7, þeims 13/3

eyrr (noun f.) ‘land-spit...’eyri 8/7

ér (pron.) [°gen. yðvar/yðar, dat./acc. yðr] ‘you...’þér 14/3

2falda (verb) ‘cover, clothe...’faldna 5/2

falkr (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘[falcon]...’falk 5/6

falla (verb) ‘fall...’ — 5/2, fell 2/3, fell 9/7

1fals (noun n.) [°-] ‘[Deceit]...’ — 14/7

fara (verb) [ferr, fór, fóru, farinn] ‘go, travel...’Fór 1/1, fór 11/2

2 (verb) [°fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn] ‘get, receive...’Fekk 6/1, fekk 9/7, fengu 8/6, fengu 10/6, fengum 10/6, fengusk 8/6, fengusk 10/6

2fela (verb) ‘hide...’falsk 5/6

(noun n.) [°fjár/féar; -] ‘cattle, money...’ — 6/6

2finna (verb) ‘find, meet...’finnum 14/3, fundu 14/3, funduð 14/3

firar (noun m.) ‘men...’firum 2/2

1fjall (noun n.) ‘mountain...’ — 14/8

fleinn (noun m.) [°dat. fleini] ‘spear...’fleina 5/5, fleina 14/7

fleiri (adj. comp.) [°superl. flestr] ‘more, most...’fleira 14/7, 14/7

fljóta (verb) ‘flow, float...’flaut 8/7

2flug (noun n.) ‘flight, ?precipice...’ — 5/5, 14/7

flýja (verb) ‘to flee, take flight...’flýr 12/1

flæma (verb) ‘[drove]...’ — 5/5

fold (noun f.) ‘land...’ — 12/7

folk (noun n.) ‘people...’ — 14/8

forða (verb) ‘escape, avoid...’forðask 6/3

forðum (adv.) ‘formerly, once...’ — 13/4

fors (noun m.) ‘torrent...’foss 14/7

fram (adv.) ‘out, forth, forwards, away...’framm 12/6

2frest (noun n.) ‘time...’frests 3/3

Freyja (noun f.) ‘Freyja...’ — 4/2

frost (noun n.) ‘frost...’ — 3/3, frosts 3/3, tfrost 3/3

2frón (noun n.) ‘earth, land...’fróns 3/3

2frýja (verb) ‘reproach, complain...’ — 4/2, Frýrat 12/1

frør (noun n.) ‘[frozen, frost]...’frør 14/7

fundr (noun m.) ‘discovery, meeting...’fundir 1/6, fundi 2/8

2fylgja (verb) ‘follow, accompany...’fylgðum 9/6

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 3/3, 6/7, 7/3, 7/7, 8/5

fyrir (prep.) ‘for, before, because of...’ — 8/7

1fyrri (adj. comp.) [°superl. fyrstr] ‘first...’fírrum 2/2

2fœða (verb) ‘to feed, give food to, bring up, bear, g...’fœðazk 6/3

fǫr (noun f.) ‘journey, fate; movement...’ — 7/3, 14/7

1ganga (noun f.) ‘way...’gǫngu 9/5

2ganga (verb) [geng, gekk, gengu, genginn] ‘walk, go...’gekk 9/7, gekk 11/1, gengu 7/1, gengu 8/6, gengu 9/5, gengum 7/1

1gera (verb) ‘do, make...’gerði 9/8, gerðisk 5/3, gerðu 9/8, gerðum 14/7, gjǫrðisk 9/8, gǫrva 5/8

Gerðr (noun f.) ‘Gerðr...’gerðri 9/8

2geta (verb) ‘to beget, give birth to, mention, speak ...’getk 11/1

2gildr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘valued at, worth...’gildar 4/3, gildrar 4/3

gjalla (verb) ‘to scream, shriek; to repay, return, pay...’gall 9/6

gjóðr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘osprey...’gioðo 10/5, gjóð 9/7, gjóð 10/5, gjóða 10/5, gjóði 10/5, gjóðs 4/3, gjóðs 10/5

gløggr (adj.) [°-van; compar. -(v)ari/-ri, superl. -(v)astr/-str] ‘clear...’ — 6/2

gnýr (noun m.) ‘din, tumult...’gnýs 4/2, gnýs 7/3

góðr (adj.) ‘good...’góði 10/5, góðrar 4/3, góðs 10/5, gótt 12/3

1gramr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’gram 9/5, gram 13/4

grár (adj.) [°gráan/grán] ‘grey...’grat 12/3, grárar 4/3

greiðandi (noun m.) ‘[suppliers]...’greiðendr 7/4

grið (noun n.) ‘truce...’griðs 4/3

1grunnr (noun m.) ‘bottom, shallows...’grunna 11/6

1guð (noun m.) [°***guðrs, guðis, gus] ‘(Christian) God...’gods 4/3

gumi (noun m.) [°-a; gumar/gumnar] ‘man...’gumar 8/8

gunnr (noun f.) ‘battle...’gunn 4/4, gunn 9/6, gunna 7/2, gunnar 7/2

1gylla (verb) ‘gild...’gylld 7/1

gylltr (adj.) ‘gilded...’gyllt 7/1

gǫfugr (adj.) [°gǫfgan/gǫfugan; compar. gǫfgari/gǫfugri, superl. gǫfgastr/gǫfugstr/gǫfugastr] ‘noble, glorious...’gǫfgum 7/3

2Gǫndul (noun f.) ‘Gǫndul...’Gǫndlar 7/2

1gǫrr (adj.) ‘ample, perfect...’gǫrrar 4/3, gǫrt 10/6, gǫrt 12/3, gǫrvan 5/8

hafa (verb) ‘have...’ — 12/6, hafði 12/6

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’heldu 13/3, helt 2/5

hann (pron.) [°gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana] ‘he, she, it, they, them......’ — 10/7, hanum 7/8, hônum 10/4, þeir 1/3, þeir 14/7, þeira 1/6, þeira 2/6

harða (adv.) ‘very...’ — 11/3

harðla (adv.) ‘very, highly, greatly...’ — 11/3

harðliga (adv.) ‘powerfully...’ — 10/2

harðr (adj.) [°comp. -ari; superl. -astr] ‘hard, harsh...’harða 15/1, 5/3, hart 8/1, hǫrð 5/3, hǫrðum 11/3

háð (noun n.) [°-s] ‘scorn...’háði 12/5

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’ — 5/3, hátt 8/2

2heið (noun n.) [°; -] ‘clear sky...’ — 7/8

4heiðr (adj.) ‘bright...’heið 6/4

heim (adv.) ‘home, back...’ — 11/4

heimr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘home, abode; world...’heim 7/8

hein (noun f.) [°-ar] ‘whetstone...’heinar 14/5

heinir (noun m.) ‘inhabitant of Hedemarken...’ — 14/5

heit (noun n.) [°; -] ‘promise...’ — 7/8

heldr (adv.) ‘rather...’ — 12/5

herðr (noun f.) [°-ar(Thom² 447¹³); -ar] ‘shoulder...’herðar 5/3

2herja (verb) ‘harry, ravage...’ — 8/1

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 5/8, her 10/6, herins 14/5, 4/6, 10/7

2heyja (verb) ‘fight, wage (battle)...’háðisk 6/7

2heyra (verb) ‘hear...’ — 8/1

1hildr (noun f.) ‘battle...’hildar 6/2

hingat (adv.) ‘(to) here...’ — 9/4

hirð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)] ‘retinue...’ — 6/3, 15/1, hirðar 4/3

1hjalmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘helmet...’hjalm 5/6, hjalmi 15/4

hjǫrr (noun m.) ‘sword...’hjǫr 5/4, hjǫr 5/8

hljómr (noun m.) [°dat. -i] ‘sound...’hljóm 9/3, hljóms 9/3

hlǫm (noun f.) — 9/3

hrafn (noun m.) [°hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar] ‘raven...’hrafni 10/8

hreifi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘[hand, wrist]...’hreifa 13/1

hrekkr (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘trick...’hrekks 14/8

1hringr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ar] ‘ring; sword...’hring 9/4, hrings 9/4

hríð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘time, storm...’ — 15/2, hríðar 4/3

1hrjóta (verb) ‘fling, fly...’hrutu 8/8

hræ (noun n.) [°; -] ‘corpse, carrion...’ — 10/6, 14/6

hugall (adj.) ‘°opmærksom, påpasselig, omhyggelig...’huglum 4/1

hvatr (adj.) [°-ari, -an; -astr] ‘keen, brave...’hvat 8/1, hvatt 8/1

hvárr (pron.) ‘who, which, what, whether...’hvárir 4/8, hvárra 4/8, hvárt 8/1

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’hver 3/1

hvé (conj.) ‘how...’ — 1/6, 3/1

hvítr (adj.) [°-an; -ari, -astr] ‘white...’hvítir 9/3, 9/3

2hyggja (verb) ‘think, consider...’hugða 12/3, hugðak 12/3, hugði 6/3, hykk 9/5, hykk 13/2

hœfiligr (adj.) ‘[becoming]...’hœfilig 13/1

hǫfði (noun m.) ‘Man-head...’hǫfða 3/2, hǫfðann 3/2, 3/2

1hǫfn (noun f.) [°hafnar; hafnir(/hafnar(Streng 234³²)] ‘haven, harbour...’ — 2/4

hǫggva (verb) ‘to strike, put to death, cut, hew...’hǫggvinn 10/7, hǫggvit 10/7

hǫrgr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘cairn, shrine...’hǫrgum 11/3

1inn (adv.) ‘in, inside...’ — 12/2

2inn (art.) ‘the...’hins 14/5, 5/6

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 2/3, 2/4, 4/6, 5/1, 7/4, 8/4, 9/8, 10/3, 11/3, 12/1

ímun (noun f.) ‘battle...’ — 4/4

ítr (adj.) ‘glorious...’ítra 5/1, ítru 5/1

jarl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘poet, earl...’ — 1/4, jarli 3/2

jór (noun m.) ‘stallion, steed...’ 7/6, 7/6, jós 7/6

3kanna (verb) ‘know, be able...’Kannk 1/5

karl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘(old) man...’ — 3/2, karla 3/2

2Karl (noun m.) ‘Karl...’Karls 3/2

kennir (noun m.) ‘teacher...’ — 3/1

klakkr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘°høj spids klippe...’klaks 14/4

kljúfa (verb) ‘cleave...’klufu 8/3

knega (verb) ‘to know, understand, be able to...’knátti 8/2

knittr (noun m.) ‘°?knægt, splejs...’knítt 3/1

knýja (verb) ‘press forward, urge, drive...’kníðu 1/3, knúðu 1/3

koma (verb) [kem, kom/kvam, kominn] ‘come...’kom 1/4, kom 11/2, 4/6, komum 9/3, kómu 9/3, kæmnir 3/1

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’konung 12/4, konung 14/4, 1/2, 2/6, 14/4, konungs 6/4, konungs 12/4, konungs 14/4

1kosta (verb) ‘try, strive...’ — 4/5

1kostr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -i/-u] ‘choice, food, goods, good quality...’kostu 4/5

kunna (verb) ‘know, can, be able...’kunnt 3/1

kunnr (adj.) ‘known (?)...’ — 3/1

kváma (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘coming...’kvômu 11/4

1kveðja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘greeting...’kveðju 7/7, kveðjur 7/7

kvisting (noun f.) ‘[maiming]...’kvistingar 4/5, kvistingum 4/5

kvistungr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘°(I) efterkommere af Kvistr...’kvistungar 4/5

1kylfa (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘club...’kylfu 10/1, kylfur 10/1

kǫstr (noun m.) [°dat. kesti; kestir, acc. kǫstu] ‘pile...’kǫstu 4/5

lauss (adj.) [°compar. lausari] ‘loose, free, without...’laust 2/6

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’lét 3/2, lét 10/7

leggja (verb) ‘put, lay...’lagða 3/4, lagðan 3/4, lagði 3/4

3leika (verb) ‘play...’lék 10/7

lendingr (noun m.) ‘landsman...’lendinga 14/2, lendingar 14/2, lendingum 14/2

lið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘retinue, troop...’ — 2/7, 2/8, 6/1, 12/2, liðar 2/7, liði 5/2

linnr (noun m.) ‘snake...’linn 14/6, linns 14/6

líkr (adj.) ‘like...’líks 14/4

lund (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-ar(Rém 301³¹)] ‘mind, way...’lundum 9/4

magr (adj.) ‘lean...’ — 11/3

malmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘metal...’malma 7/7

2margr (adj.) [°-an] ‘many...’ — 11/3, 11/6, mǫrg 11/6, morgt 11/6

2marr (noun m.) ‘horse...’mara 4/1

1mál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘speech, matter...’mála 7/7

máni (noun m.) [°-a] ‘moon...’mána 4/1

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 7/3, 7/7

mega (verb) ‘may, might...’mátti 8/2, máttu 11/7, máttum 11/7, megi 14/6, megir 14/6, megu 14/6, megut 14/6, mœttum 11/7

meiri (adj. comp.) [°meiran; superl. mestr] ‘more, most...’meir 11/1, meira 6/1

1merki (noun n.) [°-s: -] ‘banner, sign...’merkjum 7/2

miðlandi (noun m.) ‘sharer, mediator...’miðlǫndum 9/4

miðlangr (adj.)miðlǫngum 9/4

miðluðr (adj./verb p.p.)miðluðum 9/4

mikill (adj.) [°mikinn] ‘great, large...’mikla 2/2, miklu 6/1

mildr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr] ‘mild, gentle, gracious, generous...’ — 6/2

minn (pron.) [°f. mín, n. mitt] ‘my...’ — 5/5, mín 5/5

3minni (adj. comp.) [°superl. minnstr] ‘less, least...’minna 12/2

2missa (verb) ‘lose, lack...’missi 11/1

mjǫðr (noun m.) [°dat. miði] ‘mead...’mjǫð 7/7

mjǫk (adv.) ‘very, much...’ — 7/7

1morð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘killing, battle...’ — 11/2

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’mun 12/5

mær (noun f.) [°meyjar, dat. meyju; meyjar] ‘maiden...’ — 7/8, 12/4

narr (noun m.) — 8/7

nár (noun m.) [°-s; -ir] ‘corpse...’ — 8/7

(conj.) ‘nor...’ — 4/3, 10/3, 13/1

norðan (adv.) ‘from the north...’ — 1/4, 11/2

2norðr (adv.) ‘north...’norðar 11/2

nær (adv.) ‘near, almost; when...’ — 3/4, 8/7, 10/3

oddr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘point of weapon...’odda 3/3

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 5/3, 6/8

4of (particle) ‘(before verb)...’ — 3/4, 10/7

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 5/5

orð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘word...’ — 13/4, orða 3/3

orna (verb) ‘[warm]...’ — 10/3

ófár (adj.) ‘not a few...’ófáir 8/8, 8/8

Óláfr (noun m.) ‘Óláfr...’Ôleifi 4/4, Ôleifs 15/1

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 1/1

palmsunnudagr (noun m.) ‘[on Palm Sunday]...’palmsunnudag 15/4

páski (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘Easter...’páska 15/3

peitneskr (adj.) ‘[a Poitou-made]...’peitneskum 15/3

rauðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘red...’rauða 2/3, rauða 9/2, rauðra 8/3, rauðu 9/2, rautt 2/3

raun (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘ordeal, proof, experience...’ — 14/5

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’réð 10/4

rán (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘plunder, plundering...’ — 14/5

1reið (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-ar] ‘riding; chariot...’reiðar 8/4

2reiði (noun f.) [°-] ‘anger...’ — 6/4

4reiðr (adj.) [°superl. -astr] ‘angry...’reiðar 7/4, reiðir 7/4, reiðir 8/4, 8/4

2reifr (adj.) ‘happy...’reifum 4/4

rein (noun f.) ‘strip of land...’ — 2/4

reinir (noun m.) ‘(skibs) drift (for vinden)...’reini 2/4

reyna (verb) ‘test, try, experience...’reyndu 14/7

1ríðir (noun m.) ‘rider...’riðir 7/4

rjóða (verb) ‘to redden...’ — 2/3, roðna 2/3, ruðu 12/7, ruðum 12/7

roðna (verb) ‘redden...’roðnir 8/3

2róa (verb) ‘row...’róit 10/4

Róða (noun f.) ‘[Róði]...’ — 2/3

ræsir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ræsi 7/3

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’rendr 8/3, 8/3

saman (adv.) ‘together...’ — 2/8

samknúta (noun f.) ‘[a one joined]...’ — 11/8

2sannr (adj.) [°-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘true...’sann 11/8, satt 11/7, sǫnnu 2/7

saurr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘[muck]...’saur 9/7

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’ — 12/6, 9/7, Þat 3/1, þat 9/2, þat 10/5, þat 11/1, þat 14/1, þat 14/3, þeim 6/6, þeim 14/7, þeima 11/4, þeir 8/5, Þess 11/1

sárr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘sore, painful; wounded...’sartt 11/7, sárir 8/8

sás (conj.) ‘the one who...’ — 2/5, 11/2

seggr (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘man...’seggi 12/8, seggir 4/8

segja (verb) ‘say, tell...’ — 1/5

seinn (adj.) [°seinan; compar. seinni, superl. seinstr/seinastr] ‘slow, late...’sein 10/2

sekr (adj.) [°-jan/-an] ‘guilty...’sekir 4/8

sem (conj.) ‘as, which...’ — 7/5, 12/7

senda (verb) ‘send...’sendu 14/2

sendir (noun m.) ‘sender, distributor...’sendi 14/2, sendis 14/2

1serkr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -/-i; -ir] ‘shirt...’serkjum 7/2, serks 7/2, serks 12/7

sessi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘bench-mate...’ — 5/7

sigr (noun m.) [°sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar] ‘victory...’sig 4/1, 1/5

sik (pron.) [°gen. sín, dat. sér] ‘(refl. pron.)...’sér 4/7

siklingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’ — 2/2, siklingum 2/2

3sinn (pron.) [°f. sín, n. sitt] ‘(refl. poss. pron.)...’sín 4/7, sín 13/4, sínn 4/7, sínu 2/7, sínum 2/7

2síð (adv.) ‘late...’síðar 2/7

sjalfr (adj.) ‘self...’sjalf 10/1, 10/1

1sjá (pron.) [°gen. þessa dat. þessum/þeima, acc. þenna; f. sjá/þessi; n. þetta, dat. þessu/þvísa; pl. þessir] ‘this...’þenna 11/4, þenna 14/3, þessor 7/5, þessum 7/5

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’sák 5/1

sjór (noun m.) ‘sea...’ — 9/7

skeggi (noun m.) [°-ja; -jar] ‘[denizen, skeggi]...’skeggjum 12/8

skeggr (noun m.) ‘beard...’skeggi 12/8

1skeið (noun f.) [°-ar; -r/-ar/-ir] ‘ship...’skeiðar 8/4, skeiðar 10/8, skeiðir 8/4

2skeina (verb) ‘scratch...’ — 10/2

sker (noun n.) [°-s; -, gen. -ja] ‘skerry...’skers 12/7

skera (verb) ‘cut...’skôru 1/8

skil (noun n.) [°; -] ‘knowledge...’ — 1/7

skip (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘ship...’ — 2/8, 7/4, 8/6, 9/8

skjǫldr (noun m.) [°skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu] ‘shield...’skjǫldu 9/1, skjǫldum 9/1

skulu (verb) ‘shall, should, must...’skyldi 12/7

skǫr (noun f.) [°skarar; skarir] ‘hair, planking...’ — 5/8

1slœða (noun f.) [°; -ur] ‘°kjortel, beklædningsgenstand med lange ...’slæður 9/7

2slœða (verb) ‘[were blunted]...’slæðast 9/7, slæðusk 9/7

2snara (verb) ‘turn (quickly)...’snari 12/3

1snerta (noun f.) [°-u] ‘onslaught...’snertu 10/6, snertu 12/3

snjallr (adj.) ‘quick, resourceful, bold...’ — 2/5

snotr (adj.) ‘wise...’snota 12/3, snotar 12/4, 12/4

sókn (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘attack, fight...’ — 2/1

sót (noun n.) ‘soot...’soti 2/1

2spara (verb) ‘spare, withhold...’sparði 6/6

sprengja (verb) ‘[ruptured]...’sprengir 7/6

1staðr (noun m.) [°-ar/-s; -ir] ‘place...’stað 4/6

stafn (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘prow...’stafna 10/8

strangr (adj.) ‘strong...’strǫng 7/1

strengr (noun m.) [°-jar; -ir] ‘string, rope, bow-string...’strengja 7/6, strengjar 7/6, 9/6

styrr (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘battle...’styr 11/4

stǫng (noun f.) [°stangar, dat. -u; stangir/stengr] ‘pole...’stangir 6/8, 7/1

sund (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sound, strait; swimming...’sund* 1/6, sunda 11/5, sundi 2/8, sundi 11/5

sunna (noun f.) ‘sun...’sunnu 11/6

svalr (adj.) ‘cool...’svalar 5/4

svanr (noun m.) [°-s; -ir] ‘swan...’ — 9/7

svartr (adj.) ‘black...’svart 9/7, svarta 10/1, svartar 10/1, svǫrt 5/8, svǫrtu 10/6, svǫrtum 10/6, svǫrtum 12/3

svá (adv.) ‘so, thus...’ — 4/7, 5/7, 12/3, 15/2

sveinn (noun m.) [°sveins; sveinar] ‘boy, servant, attendant...’svein 2/4, Sveini 4/1, 2/7

2Sveinn (noun m.) ‘Sveinn...’Svein 14/3, Sveini 2/4, Sveini 11/7, 10/2, 14/3, Sveins 2/7, Sveins 14/3

sveit (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘host, company...’sveitum 10/6

sverð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sword...’ — 9/8, sverða 4/2, sverðs 9/8

2svinnr (adj.) ‘wise...’svinn 4/1, svinn 14/3

svǫrr (noun m.) ‘[bird]...’ — 9/7

sylgr (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘drink, draught...’sylg 9/6, sylgs 9/6

sýn (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘sight...’ — 4/7

sýna (verb) ‘show, seem...’syndi 11/5

sýnn (adj.) ‘visible...’sýnum 2/7

sœfa (verb) ‘die, kill...’sæfðusk 9/7

sœkja (verb) ‘seek, attack...’sótti 2/1, sótti 12/6, sóttu 4/7, sóttu 12/6, sóttumsk 4/7, sóttusk 4/7

sætta (verb) ‘reconcile, settle...’sætti 2/1

sættr (adj.) ‘apparent, evident...’sætt 9/2

1søkkva (verb) ‘sink, strong intrans....’Sǫkk 11/5

sǫngr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -vi/-; -var] ‘song...’sǫng 7/1

tafn (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘carrion...’ — 9/7

Teitr (noun m.) ‘[cheerful, Teitr]...’ — 5/1

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 6/2, 10/5, 11/6, 14/4

tveir (num. cardinal) ‘two...’tveggja 4/8

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 5/6, 7/2

undan (adv.) ‘away, away from...’ — 9/5

ungr (adj.) ‘young...’ungan 9/5

upp (adv.) ‘up...’ — 8/4, 9/8, 14/2

út (adv.) ‘out(side)...’ — 5/1, 8/7

úti (adv.) ‘out, outdoors, out at sea, abroad...’ — 11/8

vaða (verb) ‘advance, wade...’óð 7/1

2val (noun n.) ‘choice...’ — 7/5, vals 5/2

valda (verb) ‘cause...’olli 2/5, ollu 2/5

valdr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 5/2, valds 5/2

valskr (adj.) ‘foreign, French...’valska 5/6

1vangr (noun m.) ‘field, plain...’vangi 6/8

vaxa (verb) ‘grow, increase...’vex 14/1, vóx 14/1

válauss (adj.) ‘[without doubt]...’válaust 1/2

ván (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘hope, expectation...’vôn 10/4

vápn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weapon...’vápna 8/2

3vár (noun n.) ‘spring...’vári 1/1

várr (pron.) [°f. ór/vár; pl. órir/várir] ‘our...’óra 10/3, óru 10/3

1vega (verb) ‘strike, slay...’ 9/6

2veita (verb) ‘grant, give...’Veitti 2/1, veittu 2/1

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’er 3/1, er 9/2, erumk 3/1, es 14/5, s 11/7, var 5/3, var 5/8, var 10/5, var 11/1, var 11/7, var 11/8, vart 4/1, vas 7/5, vas 9/2, vas 10/3, Vasa 4/1, vôru 1/8, væri 12/4

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’varð 6/6, varðk 15/2

verri (adj. comp.) ‘worse, worst...’verra 4/6

vér (pron.) [°gen. vár, dat./acc. oss] ‘we, us, our...’okkr 5/1, okkr 5/7, oss 3/1, oss 9/1, oss 12/1, ossa 9/1, 8/1, 9/6, 10/6, 11/8, 14/7

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 5/8, 8/7, 10/5

1viðr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i] ‘wood, tree...’viðir 13/4, 13/4, viðum 1/5

viggr (noun m.) ‘horse...’viggs 10/7

vilja (verb) ‘want, intend...’ — 14/4

vinlauss (adj.) ‘[for friendless]...’vinlausum 6/5

2vinna (verb) ‘perform, work...’vann 9/1, vann 10/4, vann 15/1, vinn 4/4, 14/6

2vit (pron.) ‘we two...’ — 9/6

1vita (verb) ‘know...’vissak 5/7

víðr (adj.) ‘far...’viðr 10/5, víðum 6/7

víg (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘battle...’ — 6/7

2Vík (noun f.) ‘[Vík, Viken]...’ — 1/1

2vísa (verb) ‘show...’ — 5/7

vísi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘leader...’vísa 6/5

2væta (verb) ‘[moisten]...’vætt 14/1

vætr (noun n.) ‘not a trace, nothing...’ — 14/1

1Yggr (noun m.) ‘Yggr...’Yggs 10/7

þangat (adv.) ‘there, thither...’þingat 9/4

þar (adv.) ‘there...’ — 1/8, 2/5, 3/1, 8/1, 9/2, 9/3, 9/5, 9/7, 14/1, 14/3, 14/7

þars (conj.) ‘where...’ — 2/1, 4/7, 7/1, 8/1, 8/5, 9/7

2þá (adv.) ‘then...’ — 2/1, 5/3, 7/1, 14/1

þági (adv.) ‘[not then]...’ — 7/5

þás (conj.) ‘when...’ — 6/3, 9/3, 10/5, 12/6

þegn (noun m.) [°dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘thane, man, franklin...’þegnum 7/5, þen 7/6

þengill (noun m.) ‘prince, ruler...’þengil 7/6, 7/6, 9/6, þengils 7/6

þeygi (adv.) ‘not at all...’ — 7/5

þil (noun n.) [°-s] ‘[plank]...’ — 14/4

þing (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘meeting, assembly...’þingit 9/4

þinn (pron.) [°f. þín, n. þitt] ‘your...’þinna 14/3

þjóð (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘people...’ — 6/4

þótt (conj.) ‘although...’ — 12/2

þreiskr (adj.)þreisk 12/2

þriði (num. ordinal) ‘third...’þriðja 14/4

þrœnzkr (adj.) ‘from Trøndelag...’þrœnzk 12/2

þunnr (adj.) ‘slender, thin...’þunnt 6/8

þú (pron.) [°gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik] ‘you...’þik 14/4

því (adv.) ‘therefore, because...’ — 14/4

þvít (conj.) ‘because, since...’ — 4/5, 14/1

2þykkja (verb) ‘seem, think...’þóttu 13/2

œrinn (adj.) ‘ample, sufficient...’œrin 1/7, 1/7, ærna 10/3

œskja (verb) ‘[wish for]...’æskia 14/7

ætla (verb) ‘intend, mean, think...’ — 14/7

2œxla (verb) ‘augment...’ — 14/7

ǫl (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘ale...’ — 14/8

ǫld (noun f.) [°; aldir] ‘people, age...’ — 9/1

ǫr (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; ǫrvar/ǫrar] ‘arrow...’ — 9/7

ǫrr (adj.) ‘generous, brave...’ǫrt 5/1, ǫrt 8/7

ǫxl (noun f.) [°axlar, dat. -u; axlir] ‘shoulder...’axla 14/7

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