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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gísl Illugason (Gísl)

12th century; volume 2; ed. Kari Ellen Gade;

1. Erfikvæði about Magnús berfœttr (Magnkv) - 20

Skj info: Gísl Illugason, Islandsk skjald, 12. årh. (AI, 440-4, BI, 409-13).

Skj poems:
1. Erfikvæði um Magnús berfœtt
2. Lausavísa

Gísl belonged to the Icel. family of the Gilsbekkingar, who were said to be descendants of the C9th poet Bragi inn gamli ‘the Old’ Boddason (BragiIII). Gísl was the great-grandson of the skald Tindr Hallkelsson (TindrI), the uncle of poet Gunnlaugr ormstunga ‘Serpent-tongue’ Illugason (GunnlIV). See ÍF 3, 331, Genealogies II a-b in ÍF 3 and SnE 1848-97, III, 625-6. Details about Gísl’s life are given in Gísls þáttr Illugasonar (GíslIll) in H-Hr (Fms 7, 29-40; ÍF 3, 329-42) and in Jóns saga helga (JBp; JBp 2003, 10, 63-72). Gísl was born in 1079, and when he was six years old, his father was killed by a certain Gjafvaldr, a slaying Gísl later avenged. King Magnús berfœttr ‘Barelegs’ Óláfsson sentenced Gísl to death for the killing of Gjafvaldr, who was one of his retainers, but Gísl escaped execution (see Gísl Lv below). He then travelled with Magnús to Ireland in charge of hostages and became Magnús’s court poet (Skáldatal, SnE 1848-87, III, 254, 262, 276). He also seems to have participated in Magnús’s expedition to the west in 1098 and in his campaign in Sweden (c. 1100-2; see Magnkv 11 and 19). Gísl later lived in Iceland until old age and had one son, Einarr (JBp 2003, 72). In addition to the memorial poem below composed about Magnús berfœttr, Gísl is said to have composed another encomium to Magnús on the occasion described in the lv. below, but no sts from that poem survive (see SnE 1848-87, III, 626-7; ÍF 3, 340-1).

Erfikvæði about Magnús berfœttr — Gísl MagnkvII

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Gísl Illugason, Erfikvæði about Magnús berfœttr’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 416-30.

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Skj: Gísl Illugason: 1. Erfikvæði um Magnús berfœtt, o. 1104 (AI, 440-4, BI, 409-13)

in texts: H-Hr, Mork

SkP info: II, 416-30

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 4/8, 11/5, 13/5, 16/5

agi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘[seas, turmoil]...’aga 3/6

alandi (noun m.) ‘[nourishers]...’alendr 1/2

allr (adj.) ‘all...’ — 13/3

almr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘bow, elm-bow...’almi 13/5

2an (conj.) ‘than...’ — 10/5

andskoti (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘enemy, devil...’andskota 18/8

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 14/4

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 2/4, 4/5, 12/6

Atall (noun m.) ‘Atall (sea-king)...’Atals 20/4

3austr (adv.) [°compar. -ar, superl. -ast] ‘east, in the east...’ — 17/3

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 9/1, 15/3, 17/2, 18/6

áðr (adv.) [°//] ‘before...’ — 10/5, 13/8

1ár (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. u/-; -ar/-ir(LandslBorg 151b²¹)] ‘oar...’árar 3/8

batna (verb) [°-að-] ‘improve...’batnaði 7/2

baugr (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘ring...’baug 12/4

báðir (pron.) [°gen. beggja (báðra), nom./acc. n. bǽði] ‘both...’bôðum 13/2

Báleygr (noun m.) ‘Báleygr...’Báleygs 1/7

bjartr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘bright...’bjǫrtum 12/3

blár (adj.) ‘black...’ — 16/1, blôum 1/8

2blása (verb) [°blǽss; blés, blésu; blásinn] ‘blow...’blés 19/1

bragnar (noun m.) ‘men, warriors...’brǫgnum 7/5

bregða (verb) [°bregðr/brigðr; brá, brugðu; brugðinn/brogðinn] ‘pull, jerk, break; change...’brá 20/5

3brenna (verb) [(weak, transitive)] ‘to burn (weak, intr.)...’ — 4/5

brjóta (verb) [°brýtr; braut, brutu; brotinn] ‘to break, destroy...’Braut 15/5, brutu 11/8

brúðr (noun f.) [°brúðar, dat. & acc. brúði; brúðir] ‘woman, bride...’brúði 15/8

2búa (verb) [°býr (1. pers. býg NjM 330²⁴); bjó/bjuggi/bjǫggi/byggi, bjuggu/bjǫggu (præt. conj. byggi); búinn (n. sg. búit/bút)] ‘prepare, ready, live...’Bjósk 4/5, búnum 16/2

búandi (noun m.) [°-a; búendr (bøendr var. ÓH 47¹²: AM 325 VII 4° “325 VII”), dat. búǫndum/búandum/búendum] ‘farmer, resident...’búendr 4/6, búendr 7/6

bœta (verb) [°-tt-] ‘better, emend, compensate...’bœtti 8/4

danr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ir] ‘Dane...’Dana 15/6

djúp (noun n.) [°-s; dat. -um] ‘depth, the deep...’djúps 16/8

dreki (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘dragon, dragon-ship...’dreka 16/7, 15/5

dreyrugr (adj.) [°dreyrgan/dreyrugan; superl. dreyrgastr] ‘bloody...’ — 18/5

1drífa (noun f.) [°-u] ‘snow-storm...’drífu 20/4

1drótt (noun f.) ‘troop...’dróttar 10/2

dróttinn (noun m.) [°dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar] ‘lord, master...’dróttni 6/6, dróttni 17/2

dýrr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr] ‘precious...’ — 15/5

dǫglingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’dǫglings 16/7

dǫrr (noun m.) ‘spear...’darri 12/8

1egg (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)] ‘edge, blade...’eggju 17/8

Egill (noun m.) ‘Egill...’Egils 2/2, Egils 6/3

2eiga (verb) [°á/eigr (præs. pl. 3. pers. eigu/eiga); átti, áttu; átt] ‘own, have...’Átti 4/1, ôttu 7/6

1eisa (noun f.) [°; -ur] ‘flame, ember...’ — 16/6

ek (pron.) [°mín, dat. mér, acc. mik] ‘I, me...’k 20/5

Elfi (noun f.) ‘Götaälv (Elfr)...’ — 17/3

elfr (noun f.) ‘river...’elfi 8/5

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 1/6, 4/6, 8/2, 9/2, 15/2, 19/2

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’es 3/5, es 7/6, sás 9/6, sás 10/6, þars 1/2, þars 11/5, þars 20/8

1ey (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-; -jar] ‘island...’ — 11/3, eyja 10/2

Eysteinn (noun m.) ‘Eysteinn...’Eysteins 20/3

faðir (noun m.) ‘father...’feðr 19/4, fǫður 20/3

fagrbúinn (adj.) ‘beautifully adorned...’fagrbúin 8/7

falla (verb) ‘fall...’felli 13/8, fellu 5/6

fasti (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘flame, fire...’ — 16/8

faxi (noun m.) ‘steed...’faxa 1/5

fimmtán (num. cardinal) ‘fifteen...’fimtán 17/7

1fjara (noun f.) ‘shore, foreshore...’fjǫru 8/8

fjórir (num. cardinal) ‘four...’fjórum 10/4

flaust (noun n.) ‘ship...’ — 8/7

floti (noun m.) ‘fleet...’flota 3/2

flýja (verb) ‘to flee, take flight...’flýðu 4/6, flýðu 9/2

folk (noun n.) ‘people...’ — 10/3, 18/1

frami (noun m.) ‘success...’frama 19/6, 9/6

framr (adj.) [°compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr] ‘outstanding, foremost...’framast 20/2

2fránn (adj.) ‘bright, shining...’ — 19/3, fránni 17/8

fremja (verb) ‘advance, perform...’framði 1/1, Framðisk 17/1

friðr (noun m.) ‘peace...’frið 8/3

frœkn (adj.) ‘brave, bold...’frœknum 20/1

frændi (noun m.) ‘kinsman, male relative...’frænda 11/2, frænda 20/6

2fullr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘full, complete...’ — 7/3

fundr (noun m.) ‘discovery, meeting...’fundar 2/2

2fylgja (verb) ‘follow, accompany...’Fylgðak 20/1, Fylgðu 2/5

fylkir (noun m.) ‘leader...’fylki 19/5, 9/5

fylkja (verb) ‘marshal...’fylkði 10/6

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 3/5, 4/3, 12/8

fyrstr (num. ordinal) ‘first...’fyrst 18/2

1galli (noun m.) ‘destruction...’ — 15/4

2ganga (verb) [geng, gekk, gengu, genginn] ‘walk, go...’gekk 5/3

gauti (noun m.) ‘man, Geat...’Gauta 17/6

gefa (verb) ‘give...’gaf 7/5

gefandi (noun m.) [°-a; gefendr] ‘dispenser, giver...’gefendr 2/7

gegnum (prep.) ‘through...’gǫgnum 18/2

1gera (verb) ‘do, make...’gǫrvan 8/1

gin (noun n.) ‘[mouth, jaws]...’ — 16/3

gjalfr (noun n.) [°-s] ‘surge, waves...’ — 16/3

glata (verb) ‘destroy...’glatat 8/2

gleðja (verb) ‘gladden, rejoice...’gladdisk 19/2

glymr (noun m.) ‘noise...’glym 15/8

1gramr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’gram 1/3, gram 9/4, 8/1, 17/4

gullinn (adj.) ‘golden...’gollnu 16/4

gǫfga (verb) ‘endow, worship...’gǫfguðum 6/7

gǫfugr (adj.) [°gǫfgan/gǫfugan; compar. gǫfgari/gǫfugri, superl. gǫfgastr/gǫfugstr/gǫfugastr] ‘noble, glorious...’gǫfgu 14/6

Haðar (noun m.) ‘Haðalander...’Haða 6/6

haf (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘sea...’hafs 15/8

hafa (verb) ‘have...’Hafði 9/5, hǫfðu 12/1, Hǫfðu 14/1

hamall (adj.) ‘wedge-shaped...’hamalt 10/6

hann (pron.) [°gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana] ‘he, she, it, they, them......’hans 18/8, þeira 5/4

Haraldr (noun m.) ‘Haraldr...’Haralds 11/2, Haralds 20/6

hata (verb) ‘hate...’hatendr 7/4

hauss (noun m.) [°hauss, dat. hausi/haus; hausar] ‘skull...’ — 18/7, hausum 16/5

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’ — 5/3

heimfǫr (noun f.) ‘journey home...’ — 14/3

helmingr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘unit, troop...’ — 6/3

herað (noun n.) [°-s; heruð] ‘district...’herǫð 5/4, herǫð 17/7

herðr (noun f.) [°-ar(Thom² 447¹³); -ar] ‘shoulder...’herða 18/7

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 6/2, 13/4, hersar 6/5

hertogi (noun m.) ‘duke...’hertoga 12/5

2heyja (verb) ‘fight, wage (battle)...’Hôðum 11/1

1hildr (noun f.) ‘battle...’hildi 11/1

hilmir (noun m.) ‘prince, protector...’ — 4/1, hilmis 13/3

himinn (noun m.) [°himins, dat. himni; himnar] ‘heaven, sky...’himins 16/6

hitta (verb) ‘meet, encounter...’hitti 10/5

hjǫrr (noun m.) ‘sword...’hjǫrvi 1/8, hjǫrvi 20/5

Hlaðir (noun f.) ‘[Lade]...’ — 6/4

hlaupa (verb) ‘leap, run...’ — 18/6, hljóp 16/3

hlíf (noun f.) [°-ar; -ar] ‘shield, defence...’ — 12/6

2hlýða (verb) ‘hear, listen; be able...’hlýddi 8/6

hnugginn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘deprived...’ — 18/4

holr (adj.) ‘open...’Hol 19/1

1hryggr (noun m.) [°-jar/-s(cogn.), dat. -; -ir] ‘back; ridge...’hrygg 15/7

2Hugi (noun m.) ‘[Hugh]...’ — 13/8

1Huginn (noun m.) ‘Huginn...’ — 19/2

hugr (noun m.) ‘mind, thought, courage...’hug 7/3

1húnn (noun m.) [°; húnar] ‘knob...’húna 14/8

húsþing (noun n.) ‘assembly...’ — 4/2

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’hverri 15/7

hvítmýlingr (noun m.) ‘white-muzzled one...’hvítmýlingar 13/7

hvǫtuðr (noun m.) ‘inciter...’ — 18/1

hyrr (noun m.) ‘fire...’ — 5/1

hǫfuð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘head...’hǫfði 16/4, hǫfði 19/3

hǫfuðsmaðr (noun m.) ‘leader...’hǫfuðsmanni 14/4

1hǫll (noun f.) [°hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir] ‘hall...’hallir 5/2

hǫnd (noun f.) [°handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)] ‘hand...’hǫndum 13/2

Imð (noun f.) ‘Imð...’Imðar 1/5

innan (prep.) ‘inside, within...’ — 4/3

innanverðr (adj.) ‘[inner side]...’innanverða 11/4

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 3/6, 6/2, 8/5, 8/8, 9/8, 15/7, 16/3, 18/2, 20/4

Ívist (noun f.) ‘North Uist...’Ívistar 9/4

jarl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘poet, earl...’jarla 10/8, jarlar 11/7

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’jǫfra 9/3, 1/6, 13/6

kapp (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘strength, vigour, courage...’ — 11/8, kapps 12/7

kaupmaðr (noun m.) ‘[for merchants]...’kaupmǫnnum 8/3

keyra (verb) ‘drive, whip, fling...’keyrði 15/2

knega (verb) ‘to know, understand, be able to...’knátti 3/1, knátti 5/5

knýja (verb) ‘press forward, urge, drive...’kníði 3/8

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’konung 9/7, 4/7, 7/3, 8/4, 11/7, konungs 5/7, konungs 12/8

krefja (verb) ‘request...’ — 2/4

kunna (verb) ‘know, can, be able...’kunnak 20/2

lag (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘layer; (pl.) law...’lǫgum 2/8, lǫgum 17/6

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’landi 1/4, landi 6/8, lands 2/4

landráð (noun n.) ‘treason; government...’landrôð 5/7

landsmaðr (noun m.) ‘countryman...’Landsmenn 14/5

launa (verb) ‘reward...’ — 7/8

2láð (noun n.) ‘earth, land...’ — 2/7, 6/7

lið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘retinue, troop...’ — 3/7, liðar 12/2, liði 2/3, liði 5/8, liði 9/8, liði 14/6

linnr (noun m.) ‘snake...’linns 2/7

líta (verb) ‘look, see; appear...’litu 14/5

lofðungr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, leader...’ — 2/3

lofsæll (adj.) ‘praise-blessed, glorious...’lofsælan 1/3

logi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘flame...’ — 5/3

1lúka (verb) ‘end, close...’lokit 14/2

lǫgmaðr (noun m.) ‘lawyer...’Lǫgmann 9/7

2Magnús (noun m.) ‘Magnús...’Magnúss 12/2

malmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘metal...’ — 18/5

2margr (adj.) [°-an] ‘many...’Margan 12/1

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 1/8, 11/2, 19/6, 20/6

meðal (prep.) ‘between...’ — 18/6

mega (verb) ‘may, might...’Môttut 6/5

meiri (adj. comp.) [°meiran; superl. mestr] ‘more, most...’mestum 19/6

1merki (noun n.) [°-s: -] ‘banner, sign...’ — 19/1

mikill (adj.) [°mikinn] ‘great, large...’miklum 3/6

oddr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘point of weapon...’oddi 12/3

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 5/4, 5/8, 14/6, 19/3

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 2/6, 3/4, 11/7, 18/7

Ǫngull (noun m.) ‘[Angles]...’Ǫnguls 11/3

opt (adv.) ‘often...’ — 20/5

Ǫrvahamrar (noun m.) ‘Ǫrvahamrar...’Ǫrvahamra 4/4

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 2/1, 2/8, 17/6

Ósló (noun f.) ‘[Oslo]...’ — 2/1

óþrotligr (adj.) ‘unceasing, indefatigable ...’óþrotligt 3/7

prúðliga (adv.) ‘[splendidly]...’ — 13/4

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’ — 6/8

ráðspakr (adj.) ‘[sensible]...’ráðspakir 7/7

2reiði (noun f.) [°-] ‘anger...’ — 11/5

1réttr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -i/-u] ‘right, entitlement...’rétt 7/7

1ríða (verb) ‘ride...’Reið 18/1

ríkisvǫndr (noun m.) ‘royal sceptre...’ríkisvendir 11/6

rjúfa (verb) ‘break...’Raufsk 6/1

1rósta (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘[tumult]...’róstu 6/1

rygjar (noun m.) ‘Rogalanders...’Rygir 2/6

rymr (noun m.) ‘roar...’ — 6/2

rœkð (noun f.) [°-ar] ‘affection...’rœkðum 7/8

ræna (verb) ‘rob...’ — 1/4

ræsir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ræsi 2/5

safnaðr (noun m.) ‘ranks, gathering...’sǫmnuð 18/3

1salr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum] ‘hall...’salir 5/6

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’Þann 7/5, Þann 19/5, þanns 8/4, þat 4/3, þeims 13/6

seggr (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘man...’seggir 14/1

segl (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sail...’ — 14/7

sem (conj.) ‘as, which...’ — 16/6, 20/2

setja (verb) ‘place, set, establish...’sett 14/8

siðr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -u] ‘faith, morals...’ — 7/2

sigr (noun m.) [°sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar] ‘victory...’sigri 3/4, sigri 18/4, sigrs 19/8

Sigurðr (noun m.) ‘Sigurðr...’Sigurðar 19/4

sik (pron.) [°gen. sín, dat. sér] ‘(refl. pron.)...’ — 1/1, 10/3

siklingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’siklings 3/2

3sinn (pron.) [°f. sín, n. sitt] ‘(refl. poss. pron.)...’sitt 11/8, sína 7/4, sínu 9/8

síðan (adv.) ‘later, then...’ — 7/1, 17/1

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’sák 19/5, Séa 3/1, Séa 5/5

sjór (noun m.) ‘sea...’ 4/2

skelfir (noun m.) ‘terrifier...’skelfi 15/6

skera (verb) ‘cut...’skorit 12/4

1skipa (verb) ‘change, place...’skipuð 12/7

Skíð (noun f.) ‘Skye...’Skíði 9/1

skína (verb) ‘shine...’Skein 16/5

skjóta (verb) ‘shoot...’skaut 13/1, skaut 16/1

2skorða (verb) ‘support...’ — 8/8

skotr (noun m.) ‘Scot...’Skotar 9/2

smiðr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar/-ir, acc. -a/-i/-u] ‘smithy, something crafted...’ — 10/7

snarpr (adj.) ‘sharp, keen...’snǫrpu 19/7

sókn (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘attack, fight...’ — 14/2

springa (verb) ‘burst, spring apart...’ — 12/6

1staðr (noun m.) [°-ar/-s; -ir] ‘place...’Staði 4/8

stag (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘forestay, stay...’ — 15/3

steinóðr (adj.) ‘fury, destruction...’ — 15/3

2storð (noun f.) ‘young wood, earth...’storðar 15/4

stórráðr (adj.) ‘ambitious...’ — 4/7

1støkkva (verb) ‘(str.) leap, spring; scatter...’Stukku 13/5

sunnan (adv.) ‘(from the) south...’ — 2/6

svát (conj.) ‘so that, so as...’ — 8/5

sveigja (verb) ‘bend...’sveigði 13/6

sveima (verb) ‘surge...’sveimaði 5/1

sverð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sword...’sverði 19/7

svíar (noun m.) ‘Swedes...’Svía 17/2, Svía 18/3

svíri (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘neck...’svíra 16/2

sædrifinn (adj.) ‘[foam-sprayed]...’sædrifin 14/7

sœkja (verb) ‘seek, attack...’sótti 1/6

2sæta (verb) ‘mean, signify...’Sættisk 7/1

2taka (verb) ‘take...’Tók 9/1, tók 17/5

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 2/2, 19/8

tjá (verb) ‘to put in order, prepare...’téði 9/6

tvennr (adj.) ‘two...’tvennum 2/8

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 10/3, 15/6

ungr (adj.) ‘young...’ — 1/1

Upplǫnd (noun n.) ‘Opplandene...’Upplanda 17/4

útan (prep.) ‘outside, without...’ — 4/8, 6/4

1valr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ir] ‘corpse, the slain...’val 16/8

valskr (adj.) ‘foreign, French...’valska 10/8

1vangr (noun m.) ‘field, plain...’vang 12/4

3vanr (adj.) ‘accustomed...’vanan 3/4, 20/7

vágr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘sea, wave...’ — 15/1

vásfǫr (noun f.) ‘[to hard journeys]...’vásfǫrum 20/7

2veðr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weather, wind, storm...’ — 10/7

vefr (noun m.) [°-jar; -ir] ‘cloth, sail, weaving...’vefi 15/2

1vega (verb) ‘strike, slay...’ 13/3, 19/8, 20/8

vel (adv.) ‘well, very...’ — 3/3, 12/7

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’es 5/6, vas 4/3, vas 14/2

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’varð 6/2, Varð 12/5, varð 18/5

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 4/2, 6/1, 6/4, 6/6, 7/4, 11/3, 14/8, 17/3

1viðr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i] ‘wood, tree...’viðu 1/7

Viðurr (noun m.) ‘Viðurr...’Viðurs 10/7

vilja (verb) ‘want, intend...’vildu 1/2

2vinna (verb) ‘perform, work...’vann 8/1, vann 10/1

vígligr (adj.) ‘warlike...’vígligan 3/3

vǫrðr (noun m.) [°varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu] ‘guardian, defender...’ — 10/3

Yrjar (noun f.) ‘[Ørland]...’ — 3/5

ýta (verb) ‘launch...’Ýtti 2/1

þar (adv.) ‘there...’ — 5/5

2þá (adv.) ‘then...’ — 3/1, 14/2

þegja (verb) ‘be silent...’þegit 14/3

þjófr (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘thief...’þjófum 8/2

Þórir (noun m.) ‘Þórir...’Þóris 5/8

þrútna (verb) ‘[swells, swelled]...’þrútnaði 15/1

þrøngva (verb) ‘press, throng...’þrungit 10/4

2þurfa (verb) ‘need, be necessary...’þurfti 20/8

1þverra (verb) ‘diminish...’þurru 5/2

œgir (noun m.) ‘terrifier...’ — 9/3

2ægir (noun m.) ‘ocean, sea...’ — 16/1

ættland (noun n.) ‘ancestral land...’Ættlǫndum 10/1

øx (noun f.) [°øxar/exar, dat. øxi/exi, acc. øxi/øx; -ar] ‘axe...’øxum 8/6

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