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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þorm Lv 23I l. 4

kvaddi — rallied

lemma:

2. kveðja (verb): say, greet

readings:

[4] kvaddi lið bǫðvar: í vǫll at æðru DG8;    kvaddi: kvaddisk 61, 325VII, Tóm, Hb, kveðisk 142ˣ, kvôðusk 566aˣ, kvaddi and kvaddisk 761bˣmarg

notes:

[4] kvaddi lið bǫðvar ‘rallied his host to battle’: (a) The idiom is kveðja e-n e-s ‘summon sby to sth.’ (see CVC: kveðja), and here Óláfr, understood from konungr in l. 2, is taken as the subject (so ÍF 6; Ulset 1975, 92; ÍS). This has the advantage of assuming that the dramatic focus remains on the king. (b) Alternatively, lið ‘host’ in l. 4 could be subject, hence ‘the host called forth battle’ (so Skj B). (c) The variant kvaddisk occurs in mss of both ÓH and Fbr, and is adopted in Fbr 1852, and by Gaertner (1907), who interprets the clause to mean ‘the host came to blows’, on the basis of the observation that kveðjask means ‘greet one another’. Yet it is hard to see how the verb could be so used in the sg., even though lið is collective. Finnur Jónsson (1932-3) says that with kvaddisk the clause should mean ‘the troop incited itself to battle’ (though in Hb 1892-6 he took it to mean ‘the troop was summoned to battle’).

kennings:

grammar:

Weak verbs: Type 1

berja ‘fight’


IndicativeSubjunctiveImp.


PresentPastPresentPastPres.


Active voice
sing.


pl.
1
2
3
1
2
3
ber
berr
berr
berjum
berjið
berja
barða
barðir
barði
bǫrðum
bǫrðuð
bǫrðu
berja
berir
beri
berim
berið
beri
berða
berðir
berði
berðim
berðið
berði

ber

berjum
berið
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
berja
berjandi
bar(i)t


Middle voice
sing.


pl.
1
2
3
1
2
3
berjumk
bersk
bersk
berjumk
berizk
berjask
bǫrðumk
barðisk
barðisk
bǫrðumk
bǫðuzk
bǫrðusk
berjumk
berisk
berisk
berimk
berizk
berisk
berðumk
berðisk
berðisk
berðimk
berðizk
berðisk

bersk

berjumk
berizk
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
berjask
berjandisk
bar(i)zk

heyra ‘hear’


IndicativeSubjunctiveImp.


PresentPastPresentPastPres.


Active voice
sing.


pl.
1
2
3
1
2
3
heyri
heyrir
heyrir
heyrum
heryið
heyra
heyrða
heyrðir
heyrði
heyrðum
heyrðuð
heyrðu
heyra
heyrir
heyri
heyrim
heyrið
heyri
heyrða
heyrðir
heyrði
heyrðim
heyrðið
heyrði

heyr

heyrum
heyrið
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
heyra
heyrandi
heyr(i)t


Middle voice
sing.


pl.
1
2
3
1
2
3
heyrumk
heyrisk
heyrisk
heyrumk
heyrizk
heyrask
heyrðumk
heyrðisk
heyrðisk
heyrðumk
heyrðuzk
heyrðusk
heyrumk
heyrisk
heyrisk
heyrimk
heyrizk
heyrisk
heyrðumk
heyrðisk
heyrðisk
heyrðimk
heyrðizk
heyrðisk

heyrsk

heyrumk
heyrizk
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
heyrask
heyrandisk
heyrzk
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